During my research about mandolin prints prior to 1850, I found some adverts for mandolin prints in journals from the Netherlands. Soon an image emerged of an interesting and previously unwritten part of mandolin history.
Through the adverts, we can learn both about some well-known mandolin players who visited the Netherlands, but also about a number of previously unknown artists. We will also analyze the amount of concerts and other contributing musicians as well as adverts for prints, instruments and strings.
The article is written as a narrative overview of the activities in chronological order, split into periods with a focus on specific persons of interest. The details of the adverts and concerts and details about referenced literature can be found in the appendices below the main text.
This article has become quite long. Introductions to Netherland’s music history, or the known mandolin players’ backgrounds, would have made it even more so. I decided early on to not include all of these and just point out good reference works. People interested in the Netherland’s music history, especially for the period 1750-1795, should consult the excellent work by Rudolf Rasch (Rasch, Rudolf (2018); Rasch, Rudolf (online, 2018), which is an older version available online). (Please note: most of this material is only available in Dutch.) For introductions to some of the mandolin players known from other activity, such as in France, I would recommend the work by James Tyler and Paul Sparks (Tyler, James & Sparks, Paul (1989)).
The first period (1759-1765): Merchi & Rossi
It’s hard to find Dutch mandolin sources predating 1750. A likely candidate is Willem de Fesch (°1687-+1761), who printed a volume of songs (XX Canzonette, ca. 1735), with mandolin mentioned as one of the alternatives for the soprano voice (violin, flute or mandolin). However, we need to question whether this really related to the Netherlands, as de Fesch printed the volume in London. Also, the mandolin is likely only mentioned for commercial purposes, rather than proving a direct link between this music and the mandolin.
Hence I consider the first proper mandolin activity in the Netherlands an advert from 1759. In a first period, from 1759 until 1765, we can trace at least 13 concerts through adverts. Additionally, there is at least one French mandolin print also distributed in the Netherlands and a Dutch print by one of the mandolin protagonists.
The main actor in this first period is none other than the well-known pioneer of plucked string instruments: Giacomo Merchi (Brescia, °18/08/1726-?). Known to have travelled Europe performing on concerts with his brother Giuseppe Bernardo Merchi (Brescia, °28/11/1723-+22/03/1793) in the 1750s, he later settled in Paris where he published dozens of music prints (mainly for guitar, including an important tutor). There are a number of London prints as well, and besides the mandolin, guitar and colascioncino (a smaller for of colascione), he is also noted to have performed on “liutino moderno”, an instrument of his own invention. (See Public Advertiser 27/04/1769, Bath Chronicle 1/12/1774 & 9/1/1777.)
Giacomo Merchi visited the Netherlands annually early on in his career, from 1759 until 1765. His first concert seems to have been on 29/03/1759 in the Manège venue in Amsterdam, one of the most important Dutch concert halls at that time. Most adverts only mention the last name of Merchi, but the advert for this first concert mentions an initial “G”. The prints of Merchi linked to the Netherlands we will discuss later also mention the first name Giacomo on their title pages. It seems plausible enough to conclude that all sources related to Merchi in the Netherlands refer to Giacomo only.
So far I have traced at least 11 Dutch concerts by Merchi, mostly in well-known venues in Amsterdam (Doelen (2), Manège (2), Keizerskroon (1)) and The Hague (Theatre Français (3), Doelen (1)), but there are two late adverts from Utrecht as well (Aalmoezenierskamer Brigittenstraat (1) & Concertzaal Vreeburg (1)). Most concerts mention all three of Merchi’s instruments (colascioncino, guitar and mandolin), but the guitar is neglected in two and colascioncino and mandolin in one advert each. I have still entered the concert on 13/11/1764 which seems not to have featured the mandolin in my source overviews. It might well have been an oversight of the advert as Merchi seems to use the mandolin very consistently. After all, the mandolin’s popularity was still rising, both in the Netherlands as elsewhere in Europe (as can be easily seen from the rise in mandolin prints in France at this time). Apparently Merchi returned for at least one concert in 1765 (Arnhem, Stadsmuziekcollege), but as I have not seen the actual source or details about concert I have not (yet) put that one in my source overviews. (See Rasch, Rudolf (2013), Concertleven, p. 43.)
Though Merchi is listed as organizer in most of his concerts (bar one organized by Magalli on 08/02/1763), he did enlist some partners for ticket sales. Johann Julius Hummel’s music shop is mentioned on all Amsterdam concerts as ticket booth. Henri Chalon, a known organizer of concerts, is also listed as a contact for tickets in the advert of the first concert by Merchi (29/03/1759, in the Manège).
Other musicians participating in these concerts are almost always vocal artists: Mad. Lepri (Dionisia Lepri), Mad. Mellini (Eugenia Mellini). Mademoiselle Baptiste (Rose-Albertine-Françoise Anselme), Madame Baptiste (Françoise Gravillon), Mr. Magalli (organization, singing), mevr. Linders (singing). Only Michel Esser (Carl Michael Esser, singing, violin, viola) is listed to play violin and viola, but he also sang during the concert. All of these are well-known artists and concert organizers in the Netherlands, only madame Linders is unfamiliar.
It can be assumed there were some other musicians. The adverts mention “concert” and “solo” performances, which suggests some pieces were accompanied. Also, Henri Chalon, mentioned for ticket sales of the first concert by Merchi in 1759, is known to have directed an orchestra. One concert in the Theatre Français in the Hague mentions “Mademoiselle Baptiste will sing several Italian arias; accompanied by several instruments and the entire orchestra”. Though this does not prove Merchi himself also played with the orchestra, it at least proves that there were other musicians present as well. I think it very likely that Merchi usually was joined by some local musicians for accompaniment.
Giacomo Merchi is of course also well-known for publishing music. The question hence is: did Merchi print for mandolin and did he publish anything in the Netherlands? Regarding the mandolin prints, I already pointed out the three prints by Merchi in an article (see Van Tichelen, Pieter (2020)):
- Sei Duetti op. 2, ca. 1758, F-Pn shelf mark VM7 882, available online through Gallica
- Sei Trio op. 9 (originally opus 5), ca. 1761-4, GB-Lbl shelf mark Music Collections g.105
- Six Duos op. 15 (not preserved).
Opus 2 and 9 were initially targeted at the violin (and pardessus-de-viole, a soprano type of viola da gamba). Though certainly playable on violin, these prints were likely originally composed for mandolin. When the mandolin became enormously popular in Paris in the later 1760s, opus 2 and 9 were remarketed as mandolin music, making the circle whole. This remarketing can both be seen in catalogues as well as on the title pages of the volumes (see illustrations below).
Besides the (later re-)introduction of the mandolin in the title pages and catalogues, there is an interesting link to the Netherlands on the title page of opus 9. Though published in Paris, the title page states that this print was also available through Burchard Hummel in The Hague. It is quite striking to spot such a mandolin trio sonata print turn up in the Netherlands, right at the same time its composer was playing concerts over there. Merchi clearly didn’t only visit the Netherlands for playing concerts but seems to have aimed at selling music prints as well.
There is another print by Merchi linked to the Netherlands, the XII Ariette e IV Duetti, op. 17 (originally op. 10), Amsterdam/The Hague, ca. 1760. (I like to thank Damian Martin Gil for informing me about this print.) The volume is vocal in origin but also aims to be versatile enough to be playable on violin, flute, harpsichord or guitar with bass. The songs have a melody line in soprano clef (with lyrics), then a (figured) bass, and underneath a guitar part in (ottava basso) soprano clef. The duets have two melody lines in soprano clef (with lyrics) and a (figured) bass.
This volume showcases some of the vocal music which could have featured in Merchi’s Dutch concerts. It also shows that Merchi tried to include the Netherlands in his publishing activities. Alas, the mandolin is not mentioned on the title page. However, the print still predates the time when Merchi actively started to (re)market prints towards the mandolin, so it’s not a clear cut case. The volume is preserved at the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek München (D-Mbs, Mus.pr. 2018.2402, available online). The music seems to be by Merchi himself, but he clearly reused some lyrics from popular opera arias and songs.
- La destra ti chiedo
- Penso agli affanni miei
- Se tu provasti al cor
- A’ innamorarse presto se fa
- Da questo ciel tu parti
- Ste pur su le vostre mia siora
- Ah che nel dirti addio
- Ch’io mai vi possa lasciar d’amare
- Lusinghiero m’ingannasti
- Ecco quel fiero istante
- Quell’occhio furbetto
- Bella Chechina mia
- Due vezzosette nere pupille
- Mia Fillide ben mio
- Se viver non poss’io
- Ecco giunto il giorno amaro
The reason Merchi abandoned his annual trips to the Netherlands is not clear. Maybe the prints like opus 9 and opus 17 didn’t sell well enough, or the commercial prospects were better in France and England. Perhaps the concert venues were looking for fresh talent? In any case, we have no evidence for Merchi coming to the Netherlands after 1765. However, as can be spotted from the huge amount of concerts in the rest of the 1760s and 1770s, the instrument was certainly still popular.
In 1765, a certain Madame Rossi held two concerts (in the Concertzaal in Rotterdam as well as the Manège in Amsterdam). In one advert, she is claimed to be from Venice. Not much more information is available about madame Rossi, except that she played with a Madame Severini (singing) and one advert also claims a madame Tessarini directed. Women performing during a public concert (with the exception of singing) are quite rare, so, alas, a woman directing musicians seems improbable. I think this might be a mistake, and likely meant Carlo Tessarini, known as a violin player from other Dutch concerts. The concert by Rossi in Amsterdam again lists Hummel for buying tickets.
From the dates of the concerts it is clear that Merchi and Rossi only stayed in the Netherlands for a limited time. As Merchi was likely based in Paris a short trip to the Netherlands was possible, though travel time should not be underestimated. Useful information about the duration of such a journey can be learnt from the Mozart family grand concert trip passing through France, the Austrian Netherlands and United Provinces. For example, one trip without too much stops from Brussels to Paris is known to have taken the Mozarts from 15/11/1763 until their arrival on 18/11/1763. The duration to travel from Brussels to Amsterdam can be estimated based on Duten’s “Guide” (L. Dutens, Itinéraire des Routes Les Plus Fréquentées de l’Europe, Paris, 1783). Dutens assesses 40 hours not counting stops. Likely with stops this too amounted to 3-4 days. The total trip from Paris to Amsterdam or vice versa would hence likely have taken about a week, depending on the amount of stops for mealtimes, resting, sleep etc. the travelling musician would take. Often, musicians would stop along the way for a concert as well, so it might be interesting to look for concert adverts in the Austrian Netherlands (current Belgium) by Merchi as well as some of the other mandolin players travelling between France and the Netherlands.
Travelling could sometimes take longer than expected. For example, the coach could break down (cfr. the Mozart family’s concert trip got delayed for a day due to a broken carriage wheel on 9/07/1763). Sometimes, musicians would have to wait for a substantial amount of time before they were allowed to hold concerts – most often when this involved holding a private concert at the court of a nobleman (for example, the Mozart family was kept in limbo in Brussels for several weeks before they could hold a concert before Prince Charles of Lorraine). Besides such external factors, musicians also could fall ill, forcing them to delay concerts (eg. the many illnesses of the Mozart children during the concert trip).
At the time of writing this article, I have found only very sparse evidence of any mandolin player performing at the court of the Prince of Orange. There is an advert from 25/11/1766 by Rossignol and his troupe (see below). But as many other mandolin players passed through The Hague and gave concerts, there might well have been other private concerts for the Prince of Orange and his court. Maybe further research will show if Merchi or any of the other mandolin players managed to arrange such a concert.
The amount of concerts in the 1750s and early 1760s listed in adverts is limited, so the frequent and high amount of mandolin concerts is interesting. Hence these early mandolin concerts by Merchi and Rossi are certainly not a footnote but should be considered important events in the music history of the Netherlands of that particular period. The musicians participating in Merchi’s concerts also bear witness to their importance. The fact that Merchi also ended up in the good graces of the Hummel brothers for selling and even publishing his music is also testimony to his success. Most likely this was once more partially caused by the interest in the new style galant which is so closely linked with the mandolin’s popularity in the late 18th century. (See Van Tichelen, Pieter (2020))
Second period (1766-1770): Rossignol’s troupe; Mazzuchelli & Leone
After Merchi and Rossi, we need to turn our attention to a phenomenon by the name of Joseph Rossignol(o) (de Malt(h)a). As he claims to have held a concert in Versailles in an advert (Oprechte Haarlemsche Courant, 02/11/1765, n. 44, p. 2) he likely came to the Netherlands from France. As I have no indications whether Rossignol’s early concerts in 1765 included mandolin players, I have not included these in this study.
At some point during the later part of 1766 (at latest starting with adverts on 02/08/1766), Rossignol’s adverts mention a troupe of four musicians. Mostly it is claimed they are from Italy, sometimes Venice is specified. One advert claims the troupe consisted of five Venetian musicians. This fifth Venetian musician is likely Mademoiselle Nicolini who sang several Venetian airs during this concert (12/11/1766 in the Doelen, The Hague). She is not encountered again, and subsequent adverts only mention four musicians. The joint venture of Rossignol and his four musicians seems to have lasted quite long, as we are sure they worked together from 1766-1770 and there is even a late advert from 1786 in the Netherlands.
The names and instruments are often not specified, but from the details listed over the many adverts, a clear image emerges. Rossignol and his troupe played no less than 21 identified concerts involving the mandolin. That seems to be the largest amount of mandolin concerts in the Netherlands by any artist or ensemble from 1750 until 1850. Rossignol covered quite a lot of the available venues: Amsterdam (Keizerskroon (5), Nieuw Malta (3), Manège (1)), Groningen (Wapen van Stad & Lande (4)), Rotterdam (Doelen 3), Haarlem (Prinsenhof (1)), The Hague (Doelen, (1)), Zwolle (Hof van Holland (1)), Utrecht (Muziekcollege (1)).
The instruments of the four Italians (when mentioned) are always the same: “mandoline”/”mandelin”, “mandole”/”mandola”/”mandolo” and “tambour de bas organisé”/”tambour de basque met orgel”. The “mandoline” most likely was the Neapolitan mandolin. The “mandole” can’t be identified with certainty. It could have referred to either a form of six-course mandolin, or a deeper tuned instrument (as the mandole is often mentioned as accompaniment in the adverts). The tambour de bas(que) usually refers to the percussion instrument tambourine.
The first musician of interest to us in Rossignol’s troupe is the “mandelin”/”mandoline”/”mandolino” player, who is singled out most by mentioning a name in the adverts. The names found for this musician are “Gaëtani”, but also “Nicola”, “Nicolas”, “Nicolai” and “Nicolaas”. It is only through the later adverts we have some confirmation this might be one and the same person: “Nicolas Cajetani”. This Gaetani/Cajetani could be the same person active in Paris (for example, see Récréations de la Campagne, vol. 3, Paris, 1764 and a bundle of minuets from 1768). Another alternative spelling can be found in an advert in Hamburg (Reichspostreuter, 11/02/1769, n. 24, p. 4), where Rossignol advertises and a “Gädani” will play mandolin. Some Danish adverts also mention a “Gedani” as mandolin player with Rossignol.
The second person of interest is easier to identify as there are less spelling alternatives. Similar to Nicolas Cajetani/Gaetani, he’s both referred to by first and last name, though. The name is Severino (/Severina) Peres (/Perez, /Peris). He is mentioned as the musician on the “mandole” (also called “mandola” or “mandolo”). Severino Peres is also mentioned as singer (during concerts on 28/07/1770 (aria “do Etti Venesiani”), 31/07/1770, 01/08/1770, 02/08/1770), but always also as player of the mandole.
Joseph Rossignol himself is not listed as playing mandolin, but should be considered an important figure as he had two permanent mandolin players in his troupe and gave an enormous amount concerts in several countries. His own talent was a strange art of singing, at the one end imitating bird song, at the other vocalizations. At least one advert present him playing the “violin without strings” (concert on 26/11/1766). Though we can’t be sure, this sounds like Rossignol might have held a violin, literally without strings, whilst imitated violin playing with his voice.
The information about Rossignol’s contribution to the concerts seems to imply that entertainment was likely more important to him than musical value, which isn’t entirely unusual at this time. Some of the adverts are also carefully phrased to highlight “instruments never before heard” when the troupe first played at a venue. However, we should not consider these circus acts, though, as they were held in proper concert venues. Interestingly, Rossignol is listed in Leopold Mozart’s notebook from the concert trip when the Mozarts visited the Netherlands in 1766 (Leopold Mozart calls him “der Stockfisch”, likely meant as a pejorative nickname).
Other musicians which might be part of the troupe are rarely mentioned: a Sr. Bragioni is mentioned to sing an aria by Masanti, followed by a duet by Menegheti (Giovanni Menegheti, °ca. 1730-+1794) and a trio, (concert on 20/09/1766). A certain Monsr. Tessalino is also mentioned to accompany Gaëtani during his solo on the mandolino (concert on 19/11/1766). We could assume that these represent the remaining two musicians of the four people in Rossignol’s troupe, but they are so infrequently mentioned it remains uncertain.
There are only two additional musicians who joined the troupe: Sr. J(o)ubert (violin, 04/08/1766 and 31/07/1786) and the already mentioned Mademoiselle Nicolini (singing, on 12/11/1766). We can’t rule out that Rossignol hired local musicians, but with his own set of musicians, he might have made due.
There is only one concert where Hummel is listed as ticket sales point (Manège, 06/08/1766). All other concerts in Amsterdam do not mention Hummel as point of sale for tickets, which is odd, as almost all other Amsterdam mandolin concerts use Hummel as a ticket booth (until the shop closed). Puzzling is that this one concert which mentions Hummel is also the only concert which seems to have been without Rossignol, only mentioning the troupe of 4 Italian musicians. Could this mean that Rossignol was actively barred from performing in the Manège and by Hummel? There is too little evidence to go on, so it remains speculation, but it’s certainly interesting.
Rossignol and his troupe are so far the only mandolin players who we can claim to have performed at the court of the Prince of Orange. An advert from 25/11/1766 states that they “had the honour to let themselves hear before Majesties, Princes and Nobility of England, as well as his Majesty the Prince of Orange”. As Rossignol and his troupe had passed through The Hague earlier on in November 1766 (concert in the Doelen on 12/11/1766), this claim might be true.
After his first successful tour in the Netherlands in (1765-)1766-1767, Rossignol and the troupe seem to first have went south (some indications place him and his group in Liège in April 1767). Later they moved to Germany (cfr. advert in Hamburg in 1769) and Denmark (concerts in 1769-70) before returning to the Netherlands for a second tour (1770). I’ve identified a quite late concert in Utrecht in 1786 by Rossignol, again mentioning four Italian musicians (and mandolin and mandole as instruments).
The concerts by Rossignol and his troupe stand out by their low ticket price. The usual price found in mandolin concert adverts is around 2 gulden. Many of Rossignol’s concerts list prices lower than 2 gulden, even in important cities like Amsterdam. Sometimes the price is further differentiated into a second or third category, the last only costing a ‘sestehalf’ (5.5 stuivers, slightly over a quart gulden). This could be in line with the already postulated idea that Rossignol focused on entertainment value and wanted to attract a wide audience.
The only two mandolin concerts in the years 1766-70 not by Rossignol are by two important pioneers of the mandolin known from their activities elsewhere: Mazzuchelli and Leone. Gabriele Leone hardly requires any introductions as the paragon of the mandolin in the 18th century, mostly known from his activities in France and Great Britain. Mazzuchelli might be less known, but is also one of the mandolin players active in Paris (mandolin volumes printed from 1769 until 1783). The current information suggests both Mazzuchelli and Leone visited the Netherlands for one concert only.
Mazzuchelli’s concert is jointly organized by himself, Sr. De Hey and Sr. Bach. Besides Mazzuchelli on mandolin (even specified “Napolitaansche Mandolin”), De Hey (singing and violin), and Bach (harpsichord), a Sr. Boffeli also joined (singing). It is interesting to see that Mazzuchelli played a concert with De Hey, a famous local violin player and concert organizer. As several Bach family members played in concerts in the Netherlands, it can be tricky to identify the right person mentioned in the adverts of Mazzuchelli’s concert. Fortunately, this has been investigated before by musicologists, and the currently still upheld conclusion is that it was likely Johann Michael Bach. This is someone from a Bach family unrelated to Johann Sebastian Bach. (See van Hasselt, Luc (1979) and Rasch, Rudolf (2000), p. 42-3.) Johann Michael Bach published some harpsichord music through Johann Julius Hummel in Amsterdam in December 1767 and Siegfried Markordt in Augustus 1769.
Gabriele Leone is joined by Madame Paradis (singing) and Monsr. & Madame Sirmen (Ludovico Sirmen & Maddalena Laura Lombardini (°1745-+1818)), playing a concerto for two violins. Lombardini is known to have been a student of Tartini, and one of the few women achieving some status as a concert performer, let alone composer, in the 18th century. The Sirmen couple were quite famous performers, so this is again a concert with first rank professional musicians. The Sirmens already played a number of times before in the weeks before the concert with Leone.
Third period (1772-1774): Zaniboni & Fridzeri
During the next period (1772-1774) the person in the spotlight is none other than Giuseppe Zaniboni. This is an interesting development, as we previously had not that much more information besides Zaniboni’s activities in Russia. Zaniboni played some sort of six-course mandolin type (see adverts on 03/11/1772, 01/01/1773 and 03/07/1773: “(a)mandolino a douze cordes”), and gave at least 9 identified concerts in the Netherlands. Because of this density and the spread of the concerts, Zaniboni likely used the Netherlands as his (semi-)permanent base during these years.
Important to note is that the concerts by Zaniboni in Amsterdam are again listing Hummel’s music shop as ticket booth. There is one extraordinary counterexample, when for a concert organized by Benozzi on 14/12/1773, the ticket booth is handled by Siegfried Markordt (a direct competitor of Hummel). All consequent concerts in Amsterdam by Fridzeri and Zaniboni again have ticket sales through Hummel. Compared to the period of activity by Rossignol, the ticket prices also stabilize again to their normal level of ca. 2 gulden. Most concerts by Zaniboni were played in the venue Armes d’Amsterdam (6). He also played at some other venues, but always in Amsterdam (Damplein (1), Rondeel (1), Manège (1)).
Zaniboni is more often participating in concerts than organizing them himself (only 3 out of 9 concerts have Zaniboni listed as organizer). The other concerts are organized by some famed musicians of that time. The other musicians, either organizing and/or participating in the concerts are: Benossi (organization, cello, (2)), J. J. Casaer (singing, (1)), Cecilia de Salvagni (organization, singer, (2 of which 1 cancelled), Sr. Golvin (organization, (1)), Sr. Heneberg (clarinet, (1)), Georg Anton Kreusser (organization, composition, (1)), Madame Neytz (singing, (2)), Ignazio Raimondi (violin, (1)), Ramm (organization, oboe, (1)), Georg Frederik Richter (organization, harpsichord, (1)), Ernst Schick (violin, (1)) and Carel Vermeulen (organization, violin, (1)). One minor interesting thing is that the advert from 01/01/1773 mentions that tickets can also be found in “la Ville de Lyon”. This concert was cancelled through an advert the next day, without giving a reason.
The other mandolin player active during the early 1770s, is Alessandro Maria Antonio Fridzeri (°16/01/1741-+1825). Fridzeri is another example of a mandolin player mainly known by his activities in France (known from concerts and to have published a volume of mandolin sonatas in ca. 1771). He also enjoyed some notoriety because of his blindness, and the music notation system he developed due to his condition. Fridzeri gave at least 3 concerts in the Netherlands. He is one of the few mandolin players consistently playing both mandolin and violin during concerts. The concert adverts mention the mandolin for two of the three concerts. As the third one (for the concert on 14/02/1774) doesn’t specify the instruments used, it should be assumed the mandolin and violin were again used. Fridzeri’s adverts don’t mention other participating musicians and only himself as organizer (spelled “Frizeri” or “Friseri”).
The adverts seem to suggest that both Zaniboni and Fridzeri were also still accompanied by other musicians. One of Zaniboni adverts has the phrase “concertos & solos […] entr’autres un solo avec la basse” (concert on 06/11/1772), and one of Fridzeri’s adverts “en Simphonie et seul” (concert on 13/01/1774).
Another thing of note during this time is the appearance of a Dutch mandolin print from 1773. Burchard Hummel published a concerto by Johann Andreas Kauchlitz Colizzi (°ca. 1742 – +15/08/1808) in The Hague. Though this work was known by mandolin scholars for a while (S-Smf; RISM A/I CC 3365a), we lacked an advert to date this work until now (‘s Gravenhaagsche Courant, 08/03/1773). The mandolin is mentioned only as an alternative to the “violino concertante”. However, this is often encountered – during the first phase of mandolin printing the mandolin is often either not mentioned or as an alternative. (See Van Tichelen, Pieter (2020).)
Fourth period (1775-1778): Gervasio & Cifolelli
The next period is focused around one of the more well-known mandolin players of the 18th century: Giovanni Battista Gervasio. It feels to me he is often overlooked because he is overshadowed by the other main actors. But through his activities in several countries, playing in concerts and publishing mandolin prints (including the first known mandolin method in 1767), Gervasio proved to be a leading figure of the mandolin.
Gervasio is known to have been active in London until the early 1770s, where he was already performing together with his wife (a singer). Around 1775, Gervasio travelled towards the Netherlands, where he played in at least 9 concerts until 1777. The first performance which can be traced through adverts is from 28/11/1775, when he played in the Stadmuziekzaal in Utrecht. Due to the high amount of concerts in a relatively short period, it seems Gervasio and his wife were primarily based in the Netherlands for several years, though some gaps might be explained by concert trips elsewhere.
Gervasio performs at several different locations, though Amsterdam is frequented much more: Amsterdam (Armes d’Amsterdam (5)), Rotterdam (Concertzaal (2)), Haarlem (Concertzaal (1)) and Utrecht (Stadsmuziekzaal (1)). Gervasio’s instrument is usually called “mandoline” in the adverts, but spelling variants turn up sometimes “mandeline”, “mandolino”, “mandolina” or “mandolini”. Gervasio is more often organizer of his concerts (5 out of 9 concerts) than Zaniboni was, but he also joins in concerts of others (Fleuri & Fani, Fani, Zentgraaf, Casaer).
Obviously, the ranks of participating musicians is fronted by Gervasio’s wife, who is mentioned in the adverts of almost all of his concerts. Her repertory is never further specified than ‘Italian arias’. The style of her repertory can perhaps be approached through the London prints by Gervasio (Gervasio, Airs, ca. 1768; Straube, Three sonatas […] likewise a choice collection of […] songs, 1768 (two “cantoncina” by Gervasio)), or the barcaroles in manuscript (S-Skma 153:28). (NB: as I have acquired publishing rights, I might yet publish these here, but there wasn’t enough time to include them in this article.) None of this preserved vocal music by Gervasio is linked directly to the Netherlands, but as Gervasio likely came from England to the Netherlands, he might well have played from his book of Airs, or even sold some copies in the Netherlands.
Quite often the Gervasio couple is joined by other musicians specified in the adverts: Agazzi (cello (1)), J. J. Casaer (organization (1)), Cirri (cello (1)), Mr. Fani (organization, violin, double bass, hunting horn (2)), Mad. Fleuri (organization, singing (1)), Mr. Hallemans (singing (1)), Mr. J. Ruloffs (violin (1)), Mad. Schroter (singing (1)), Mr. Schroter (“le jeune”, violin (1)), Mr. Spandow (composition, hunting horn (2)), Ximenez (direction, viola, violin (1)) and J. C. Zentgraaf (organization (1)). These are once more musicians known through several other concerts in the Netherlands of quite a high standing.
As with many other mandolin players mentioned so far, the Gervasios seem to have been joined by more than the people mentioned in the adverts. The concert on 16/04/1776 mentions that Gervasio will play on the mandolin, but also that a symphony by Haydn will be executed (based on the description this looks like Symphony n. 8, The Evening, with the famous last movement “The Tempest“). Even in concerts organized by themselves, it seems they were joined by several musicians. For example, on 10/12/1776, they advertise the performance of choirs (of Sacchini and Gluck). Though there are other musicians announced, these seem hardly sufficient to perform a “grand choeur a plusieurs voix”. Another example is the concert held at the Concertzaal in Rotterdam (on 11/03/1777), where only the Gervasio couple is mentioned, but the announcement mentions singing of a cantata, including choruses.
A rather important discovery is that one of the known Gervasio prints was in fact printed in the Netherlands. The volume Sei Duetti op. 5 by Gervasio (I-TSmt, RUS-Mrg) was known for years. I had questioned the date and location of provenance so far suggested several times (for example see Van Tichelen, Pieter (2020), p. 184), but it was a hint from Ugo Orlandi which sent me on the right trail. The advert of this print was published in the Amsterdamsche Courant on 23/11/1775 and the volume was apparently published by Siegfried Markordt in Amsterdam.
Around the same time, Hummel produced another print by Colizzi, his Airs Choisis (1776, D-F). Again, this work was previously known but the precise date was unknown (adverted in ‘s Gravenhaagsche Courant, 22/01/1776). This publication is a collection of vocal works arranged into violin/mandolin duets. It is preserved in the University Library J. C. Senckenberg of Frankfurt (D-F, Mus. pr. Q 57/41, also available online.) The arias are from:
- François-André Danican Philidor, Tom Jones (Comédie Italienne, 1765)
- Johann Paul Aegidius Martini, Henri IV, ou la Bataille d’Ivry (Opéra Comique, 1774)
- André Ernest Modeste Grétry, Zemire et Azor (Comédie Italienne, 1771)
- Charles-Simon Favart, La Rosière de Salency (Château de Fontainebleau, 1769)
- Pierre Vachon, Sara ou la Fermière Ecossaise (Comédie Italienne, 1773)
- Nicolas Dezéde, L’erreur d’un moment ou la Suite de Julie (Opéra-Comique, 1773)
- André Ernest Modeste Grétry, Le Magnifique (Comédie Italienne, 1773)
Only a few excerpts remain unidentified, such as the “Ombres Chinoises”, but there are also an “Air du Sr. Colizzi” (“Serin je voudrois”) and a “Minuetto de Fantuccini Italiani”.
Just after the era of Gervasio, on 10/03/1778, Giovanni Cifolelli also played at a concert the Netherlands. Cifolelli is lesser known than most mandolin players who were active in France. This is probably due to the lack of mandolin music he left, where most other players published several volumes in Paris. However, Cifolelli successfully performed on and taught the mandolin before embarking on a career as opera composer. (There are some claims that he also wrote a mandolin method, but these come from quite late sources without any contemporary adverts or other proof to back up this claim.)
Cifolelli’s concert includes music from his last opera (called La Probité Villageoise in the advert, usually called by the name Perrin et Lucette, created Comédie Italienne, 1774). Cifolelli’s son participated by playing on the mandolin. Another work mentioned is a duo from Orphée et Eurydice by Gluck (possibly Vieni, appaga il tuo consorte / Viens, suis un époux?). The tickets for the concert are sold both at Hummel in Amsterdam as well as via Cifolelli (and Polet in Paris). There are some tertiary works that mention Cifolelli played in Maastricht before coming to Amsterdam. As I have not been able to look into the secondary sources confirming concerts in Maastricht (let alone the mandolin as part of them) this is not withheld in the lists of concerts.
Fifth period (1786, 1792, 1802): Ricciardi, Cifolelli
Alas, after decades of continuous concerts, with on average several concerts per year, suddenly the mandolin concerts grind to a halt. The decline of interest in the mandolin in the 1780s is also seen elsewhere, so it doesn’t come as a surprise. The unrest in the 1780s, 1790s and early 1800s doesn’t explain the low amount of mandolin concerts, so there likely was either less interest in mandolin concerts in the Netherlands, or the mandolin players didn’t travel to the Netherlands. The concerts that were still organized in these troubled decades simply don’t involve the mandolin as often as before. One reason for the diminished interested is that the mandolin could no longer ride the wave of the style galant.
The news is not all bad though, as it seems there were still occasional concerts which involved the mandolin. One is from a known figure from before: Rossignol and his troupe return for at least one time (1786), in the Muziekcollege in Utrecht. Again Rossignol tries to entice the audience in the advert by claiming that the “mandoline, mandole and tambour de bas organisé” are “instrument never heard here before”. The concert is also joined by seigneur Joubert (violin), known to have played with Rossignol before (on 04/08/1766).
A concert on 25/04/1792 mentions another earlier encountered name: Cifolelli. However, at such a late date it can be questioned whether this was Giovanni Cifolelli or one of his sons. After all, during the concert in the Netherlands in 1778, one of the sons is also announced to play mandolin. In the advert in 1792, Cifolelli is announced to perform a sonata and variations at the Rotterdamschen Schouwburg between two operas (Grétry, Le Magnifique (Comédie Italienne, 1773) & d’Aleyrac, L’amant statue (Comédie Italienne, 1785)).
One mandolin player never before encountered is a certain Ricciardi. He is noted to play at least twice: in 1786 and 1802, both in Amsterdam. Both concerts are organized by Ricciardi. The advert for the second concert also gives an initial “N.”. That is interesting, as there are notices of a Nicola Ricciardi having played double bass in the Felix Meritis archive (on 31/10/1788 & 01/11/1788). Likely Ricciardi was hence a versatile musician, who took to the mandolin during concerts he organized, but was professional enough to make money playing other instruments as well.
Ricciardi also sung during his concerts, extending his talents beyond the mandolin and (likely) double bass (see above). Remarkable is that Ricciardi is joined by so many participating professional musicians: Mr. Agazzi (viola d’amore, piano forte), Mad. Baillet (singing), Mad. Clairville (singing), Monsr. Deyris (singing), Mr. Klyt (“le fils”, clarinet), Mad. Lobé (singing), Monsr. Mançeau (singing), Mr. Muller (violin), Mr. Rauppe (cello), Sr. Tenducci (composition, clarinet, oboe, piano forte), Mr. Seeburger (hunting horn), Mr. Soligni (singing).
I have traced one more concert advert which mentions Ricciardi together with a certain Duprat (13/03/1800, Amsterdamsche Courant, n. 31, p. 2), for a concert on 14/03/1800). The advert only states they will hold a “vocal and instrumental concert” without specifying it further. Though I consider it likely Ricciardi played mandolin, we have only two other concert adverts linked to mandolin playing, which is too little evidence to claim the concert in 1800 as a mandolin concert.
Potentially Ricciardi, Cifolelli , Folchini (see below), or even another, unknown musician, could be the “Italiaansche Comique Zanger” (loosely translated: Italian singer of comic operas) playing on mandolin on 13/07/1792 at Huis ten Bosch in Amsterdam.
With 5 concerts from 1786 until 1802, and none between 1778 and 1786, it is clear that the mandolin is not doing well, though not entirely disappearing from the stage. More uplifting news can be read in other adverts during the 1780s and 1790s. These decades saw a continuous stream of print adverts from Hummel. These are not directly related to the mandolin, but quite a lot of them now mention Hummel sells “all kinds of instruments” as well as “best Italian strings” for “violin, viola, cello, contrabass, harp and mandolin” (later also including “lute, guitar, piano forte, harpsichord, cittern”). Though the adverts only refer to selling mandolins in the most general sense, there is some confirmation to be found elsewhere. There are several adverts from 1822, when Hummel’s shop closed. These clearly mention mandolins as part of the stock to be sold. The adverts by Hummel are joined by adverts from Antonie Van Parys in 1783, who announces selling mandolins in his shop in the Warmoesstraat in Amsterdam. So, even though the concerts of travelling musicians have dwindled, we have proof there were local people buying mandolins and strings.
There is also even an advert from a teacher, François Darme. However, the advert is less than convincing that this person really was much at home on the mandolin. He claims to teach “vocal and instrument music, the violin and flageolet [NB: type of flute] and the art of plucking the two types of guitars, the Spanish or the mandolin, the cittern or the English guitar: he observes that these are the two instruments that ally best with the voice”. Teaching adverts are rare – so Darme likely had moved to The Hague close to the date of the adverts and hoped to establish himself through these adverts.
Sixth period (1804, 1807): Folchini
At the end of the Batavian Republic and during the Napoleonic Kingdom, we so far traced only 4 mandolin concerts through adverts. The first is a concert by someone called “Faschini” mentioned in an advert in 1804 in Leeuwarden. I consider it likely this to be one and the some person as Folchini, who held three concerts in The Hague in 1807. This person, or one of them if they are indeed two separate musicians, could also have been the anonymous mandolin player of the concert in 1792. (Faschini is claimed to be an Italian singer in the advert.)
The three 1807 concerts are at the Theatre Français in The Hague, played by Folchini together with a certain Varini. Varini played an instrument of his own invention, the “fer harmonique”, which seems to have been a set of steel tubes arranged in a semi-circle and which he played with a bow. The advert for the concerts in 1807 also stated: “Folchini excels in the treatment of an instrument, of real Italian taste, but since some years more or less neglected, namely the mandolin. The clarity of presentation, even of the most difficult pieces, on an instrument of such small make, are rightly admired by the public.” This statements seem to confirm that the mandolin was indeed less popular than in its heyday of the 1760s and 1770s.
The three Folchini/Varini concerts are always directly followed by an opera (at least once Aline Reine de Golconde (Pierre-Alexandre Monsigny, created Salles des Machines, 1766), at least once Euphrosine ou le tyran corrigé (Étienne-Nicolas Méhul, created Salle Favart, 1790)). Potentially the ensemble of the Théâtre Français participated during the concert of Folchini and Varini, but the advert never makes this clear. The Theatre Français already operated in the Schouwburg (later Koninklijke Schouwburg) in The Hague in 1807 (see picture).
Seventh period (1818, 1838-1842): Reggi, Pochintesta, Comorelli
After 1815, the Netherlands enters a new era with a new kingdom established, to be ruled by the line of Orange-Nassau as sovereign ruler. It’s interesting to see that not too much after the end of the Napoleonic era, in 1818, there seems to have been at least 2 concerts in Middelburg, by Michel Booy and Comorelli. The former seems to have made music by beating on his chin; and Comorelli on the guitar and mandolin. Comorelli is discussed further below, as he also returns in 1840 & 1841 for concerts. The only other advert worthy of note from early on in this period are those connected to the clearance of Hummel’s shop in 1822. These adverts list mandolins to be sold, confirming in full that Hummel not only sold mandolin strings but also instruments.
Around 1840, there is suddenly a new revival of the mandolin. It starts with an announcement for a concert in Leiden (on 28/05/1838), where two sets of Italian brothers by the names of Reggi and Pochintesta will play the mandolin. This group of musicians then moved to Rotterdam (two concerts in the Vauxhall Doele). Both the adverts in Leiden and Rotterdam mention the brothers Reggi to have been “honorary mandolinists” of Marie Louise, duchess of Parma. This is an interesting development as I had no previous knowledge of the Reggi brothers and their service to Marie Louise. From the explicit mention of the title of Marie Louise as duchess of Parma, it could be assumed that their employ was from after her break with Napoleon. Most likely their passage at her court would hence be from between 1816 and 1838.
This boastful title linked to the duchess of Parma is also found in an advert in Breda, where alternative spelling is encountered, listing the brothers as “Peggi”. For a concert by Pochintesta in 1841, there is another mandolin player mentioned by a certain “Puggi”. Though a bit less obvious, I think this might well be another variant of the Reggis’ last name. I have not that much more information about the Reggis than what is put in the adverts, but at least we have now identified another pair of mandolin musicians travelling abroad for concerts around the mid-19th century.
The Pochintesta brothers are as enigmatic as the Reggis. After their first collaborations with the Reggis, they seem to have gone on without them (except perhaps for a brief new collaboration in 1841 already mentioned above). Both the Reggis’ and Pochintestas’ concerts are in important venues such as the Vauxhall Doele in Rotterdam, the Theatre Français in Breda and the Zaal de Duizend Kolommen in Amsterdam. The concerts by the Pochintestas in De Duizend Kolommen likely exceeded the three concerts I listed. The adverts mention “and afterwards all evenings” and are in fact usually post factum (first concert each time already held before the advert). When filling in the days in between the stated three starting dates, 28/03/1841-13/04/1841, it would mean they could have played up to 17 times. But as we have only the vaguest of mentions, I have only entered the start date of these concerts as listed in the advert. The Pochintestas are joined quite a number of times by a certain Zelas, a guitar player from Naples, and a singer called Dunot.
The other person of interest in this period is Comorelli, who returns to our attention after his concerts with Booy in 1818. In one advert in 1841 (08/01/1841), Comorelli is given the initial “D.”. In yet another advert, his provenance is stated as well “first mandolin of Verona” (concert on 30/05/1841). His last name is sometimes spelled differently: Comorelli is used most often, but Comarelli or Commarelli is also encountered. Comorelli gave 9 concerts in 1840 and 1841, mostly together with some singers. Sometimes these are just noted as “singers from Tirol”, but often the name “Von Rammstaetter” turns up. There appears to have been a father (Adolf) and a woman. I’ve not found a lot more information about the Von Rammstaetters except for a marriage announcement for a certain Adolf Von Rammstaetter with C. J. Meere in Utrecht on 06/10/1841 (advert Opregte Haarlemsche Courant on 12/10/1841, n. 122, p.3). They seem to have enjoyed some success in Warffum, Zuidhorn, Grijpskerk and Leeuwarden. Comorelli is later on encountered a last time during a concert in 1841 in Groningen with a singer called Theodor, but also with a guitar player called “Zella”. Most likely this is the same as the guitar player called “Zelas” who joined the Pochintestas in 1841.
Another interesting source to consider is a beautiful painting by Charles van Beveren, The Duet, from ca. 1830-1850. Van Beveren had settled in Amsterdam during the time when this composition was created. As he also spent some time in Rome and elsewhere, we can’t rule out he found inspiration abroad rather than in the Netherlands. Even if that were the case, it is a nice painting featuring the mandolin from someone mainly living and working in the Netherlands.
The mandolin in question is painted in quite a lot of detail, and seems to be a contemporary one. Previously, mandolins often have more elaborate decorations such as inly in the fingerboard, a more extensive rosette, and a scratch plate in tortoiseshell (see the 18th century Vinaccia from the Rijksmuseum below). The mandolin in the painting already features the simpler multiple wooden purflings around the sound hole as rosette and a wooden inlay scratch plate. The instrument misses the typical inlay at the bottom of the soundboard (often a pattern in mother-of-pearl is found in 18th century mandolins, and early 19th century instruments sometimes have that pattern in wooden inlay). At the other end, the instrument in the painting still seems to have bone or ivory bindings and inlay in the head. The fact that the instrument doesn’t yet have a raised fingerboard can’t easily be used to date it, as there are still some late 19th century examples of this.
There are a number of exquisite mandolins preserved in the Rijksmuseum and other musea in the Netherlands. However, none of these have antecedents proving they were used locally. Even if these might not have been used in the Netherlands, they are still representative of the type of mandolins used in the late 18th and early 19th century. Let’s first of all look at an early 19th century specimen, not dissimilar to the one in the painting by van Beveren.
As a contrast, below you can view a nicely decorated 18th century mandolin (earlier shown in this article when discussing the third period). Though anonymous this instrument is most likely from the Vinaccia family from Naples, around the 1770s. The level of decoration in this instrument is on the higher side, but a lot of the 18th century mandolins have extensive inlays in mother-of-pearl, tortoiseshell and bone or ivory, and lots of purfling.
I currently have no knowledge of local Dutch production of mandolins during the late 18th or early 19th century. None of the adverts that mention mandolins are for sale mention their origin, so it’s not known whether these were imported or locally produced. But we know that Amsterdam was a luthier center, and luthiers in other countries also produced mandolins in the 18th and 19th century (for example, Portugal and France). So it is not impossible that some day we’ll find proof of local Dutch mandolin production from 1750-1850, but currently we don’t have it.
Several known mandolin players visited the Netherlands for concerts – Merchi, Gervasio and Zaniboni visited quite a number of times; Fridzeri, Mazzuchelli, Cifolelli and Leone visited only a limited amount of times. Previously unknown artists also show up, most frequent the two mandolin players who joined the troupe of Joseph Rossignol of Malta: Nicolas Cajetani (also often called Gaëtani) and Severino Peres. The large amount of concerts from 1759 until 1779 combined with high-profile venues and contributing musicians confirm the success story of the mandolin in the Netherlands. Corroboration can also be spotted in adverts for buying mandolins and strings, as well as a small number of prints linked to the mandolin activity. After 1779, the popularity is clearly on its way back. Though activity is much reduced in the early 19th century, some previously unknown mandolin musicians still held concerts during the Batavian Republic, Bonaparte Kingdom and the subsequent Kingdom of the House of Orange. The adverts from concerts of mandolin players Ricciardi, Folchini, Commarelli and brothers Reggi and Pochintesta show that even in decline, the mandolin still held its own in the Netherlands.
For this investigation, I ignored the journal adverts with references to the mandolin in other countries (such as translated articles from journals abroad). Also not listed are the many references to the mandolin in literature or adverts of volumes of literation. There are 134 adverts in total, from 17 different journals. Besides journals I had direct access to, I also included adverts via the work of Rasch who had access to a number of journals I couldn’t consult (Rasch, Rudolf (2018 online)) and crosschecked my own finds with his. The vast majority is published in Amsterdam (80 adverts in 4 journals), followed in second line by The Hague (16 adverts in 4 journals) and Rotterdam (13 adverts in 1 journals). Less important but still significant are Haarlem (9 adverts in 1 journals), Groningen (6 adverts in 1 journal), Middelburg (5 adverts in 1 journal) and Utrecht (4 adverts in 1 journal). Occasional references are found in journals from Leeuwarden (3 adverts in 2 journals), Breda (2 adverts in 1 journal) and Leiden (2 adverts in 1 journal).
Categories of mandolin adverts
Almost all adverts are concert announcements (105). One advert could be seen as a primitive sort of concert review, but nothing as established as the reviews in proper musical journals known from abroad such as the Musikalische Zeitung or Journal de Musique. One other advert announced the cancellation of a concert. Other categories of adverts consists of print adverts (3), adverts for selling instruments (4) or strings/instruments (18). Even a music professor advertises teaching the mandolin (2), which is not commonly found in adverts.
Place and venues of concerts
The next item under investigation is the place and venue of the concerts. In terms of location, there is a clear preference for Amsterdam (38 concerts in 10 venues). On the second row are Rotterdam with 10 concerts in 4 venues and The Hague who has 9 concerts in 2 venues. Of third importance are Groningen with 5 concerts in 2 venues, Leeuwarden with 4 concerts in 2 venues and Middelburg again with 4 concerts in 2 venues. Decreasing further in quantity are Haarlem with 3 concerts in 2 venues, Utrecht with 3 concerts in 3 venues. Of minor importance are Grijpskerk (2 concerts in 2 venues), Warffum (2 concerts in 1 venue), Breda (1 concert), Leiden (1 concert) and Zwolle (1 concert).
|Amsterdam||Armes d’Amsterdam||13||06/11/1772, 05/01/1773, 09/03/1773, 19/11/1773, 23/11/1773, 14/12/1773, 14/02/1774, 19/12/1775, 01/03/1776, 16/04/1776, 10/12/1776, 08/04/1777, 10/03/1778|
|Amsterdam||Huis Ten Bosch||1||13/07/1792|
|Amsterdam||Keizerskroon||7||28/03/1764, 06/09/1766, 13/09/1766, 17/09/1766, 20/09/1766, 27/09/1766, 10/03/1768|
|Amsterdam||Manège||5||29/03/1759, 14/01/1762, 16/10/1765, 06/08/1766, 17/02/1774|
|Amsterdam||Nieuw Maltha||3||16/08/1766, 20/08/1766, 23/08/1766|
|Amsterdam||Zaal De Duizend Kolommen||3||28/03/1841, 01/04/1841, 13/04/1841|
|Groningen||Wapen van Stad & Lande||4||28/07/1770, 31/07/1770, 01/08/1770, 02/08/1770|
|Leeuwarden||Drie Romersi||3||13/03/1841, 14/03/1841, 15/03/1841|
|Leiden||Koffijhuis De Twee Kolommen||1||28/05/1838|
|Middelburg||Schuttershof||3||03/01/1767, 10/02/1818, 16/02/1818|
|Rotterdam||Concertzaal||4||31/08/1765, 07/04/1770, 11/03/1777, 20/03/1777|
|Rotterdam||Doelen||3||19/11/1766, 26/11/1766, 05/12/1766|
|Rotterdam||Vauxhall Doele||2||16/08/1838, 18/08/1838|
|The Hague||Doelen||2||23/04/1759, 12/11/1766|
|The Hague||Theatre Français||7||01/05/1760, 25/02/1761, 10/02/1762, 13/01/1774, 11/07/1807, 22/07/1807, 24/07/1807|
|Zwolle||Hof van Holland||1||28/08/1770|
Concerts: chronological overview 1759-1842 (84)
As in the text above, I have listed the concerts and adverts in their separate periods.
First period: 1759-1765 (12)
|29/03/1759||Merchi||Amsterdam||Manège||27/03/1759 29/03/1759||f 2||Chalon (tickets), Hummel (tickets), Lepri (singing), Merchi (organization, “mandollino”, guitar, colascioncino)|
|23/04/1759||Merchi||The Hague||Oude Doelen||16/04/1759||–||Merchi (organization, “mandoline”, guitar, colascioncino)|
|24/01/1760||Merchi||Amsterdam||Oude Doelen||12/01/1760 22/01/1760 24/01/1760||f 2||Hummel (tickets), Mellini (singing), Merchi (organization, “mandolino”, guitar, colascioncino), Terradeglias (composition)|
|01/05/1760||Merchi||The Hague||Theatre Français, Casuariestraat||28/04/1760||–||Davel (tickets), Mellini (singing), Merchi (organization, “mandolina”, guitar, colascioncino)|
|25/02/1761||Merchi||The Hague||Theatre Français, Casuariestraat||23/02/1761||same as comédie||Mademoiselle Baptiste (singing), Merchi (organization, “mandolino”, guitar, colascioncino), Tavel (tickets)|
|14/01/1762||Merchi||Amsterdam||Manège||09/01/1762 14/01/1762||f 2||Hummel (tickets), Magalli (singing), Merchi (organization, “mandollino”, guitar, colascioncino)|
|10/02/1762||Merchi||The Hague||Theatre Français, Casuariestraat||03/02/1762||same as comédie||Merchi (organization, “mandolino”, guitar, colascioncino), Madame Baptiste (singing)|
|08/02/1763||Merchi||Amsterdam||Oude Doelen||01/02/1763 08/02/1763||f 2||Hummel (tickets), Magalli (organization), Mellini (singing), Merchi (“mandolino”)|
|28/03/1764||Merchi||Amsterdam||Keizerskroon||26/03/1764 27/03/1764||f 2||Esser (singing, violin, viola), Hummel (tickets), Merchi (organization, “mandolino”, guitar, colascioncino)|
|30/04/1764||Merchi||Utrecht||Aalmoezenierskamer Brigittenstraat||30/04/1764||een daalder||Linders (singing), Merchi (organization, “mandolino”, guitar, colascioncino), Winter (tickets)|
|13/11/1764||[Merchi]||Utrecht||Concertzaal Vreeburg||12/11/1764||f 2||Gorgy (tickets), Kirchner (tickets), Mr. Maggiore (singing), Ms. Maggiore (singing), “Merci” ([Merchi], colascioncino, guitar), Winter (tickets)|
|31/08/1765||Rossi||Rotterdam||Concertzaal||31/08/1765||–||Rossi (organization, “mandoline”), Severini (singing), “Signora Tessarini”([Carlo Tessarini or relation?] direction)|
|16/10/1765||Rossi||Amsterdam||Manège||15/10/1765||f 2||Hummel (tickets), Rossi (“mandoline”), Severini (singing)|
Second period: 1766-1770 (22)
|04/08/1766||Rossignol & troupe||Haarlem||Prinsenhof||02/08/1766||f 1-10||4 Italians (“mandoline”, “mandole”, “tambour de bas organisé”), Jubert ([Joubert] violin), Rossignol (organization, singing), Starck (tickets)|
|06/08/1766||Rossignol’s troupe [without Rossignol?]||Amsterdam||Manège||02/08/1766, 05/08/1766||f 2||Hummel (tickets), 4 Italians (“mandoline”, “mandole”, “tambour de bas organisé”)|
|16/08/1766||Rossignol & troupe [Cajetani]||Amsterdam||Nieuw Maltha||16/08/1766||–||4 Italians (organization, “madoline” (Nicolas), “mandolo”, “tambour de bas organisé”), Bouillon (tickets), Rossignol (organization, singing)|
|20/08/1766||Rossignol & troupe [Cajetani]||Amsterdam||Nieuw Maltha||19/08/1766||f 1||4 Italians (organization, “mandoline” (Nicolas), “mandolo”, “tambour de bas organisé”), Bouillon (tickets), Rossignol (organization, singing)|
|23/08/1766||Rossignol & troupe [Cajetani]||Amsterdam||Nieuw Maltha||23/08/1766||f 1||4 Italians (organization, “mandoline” (Nicolas), “mandole”, “tambour de bas organisé”), Bouillon (tickets), Rossignol (organization, singing)|
|06/09/1766||Rossignol & troupe||Amsterdam||Keizerskroon||06/09/1766||f 1||Rossignol (organization, singing), 4 Italians (mandoline, mandole), Bouillon (tickets)|
|13/09/1766||Rossignol & troupe||Amsterdam||Keizerskroon||11/09/1766, 13/09/1766||f 1||4 Italians (“tambour de bas organisé”), Bouillon (tickets), Rossignol (organization, singing)|
|17/09/1766||Rossignol & troupe||Amsterdam||Keizerskroon||16/09/1766||f 1||4 Italians (“tambour de bas organisé”), Bouillon (tickets), Rossignol (organization, singing)|
|20/09/1766||Rossignol & troupe||Amsterdam||Keizerskroon||20/09/1766||f 1||4 Italians (singing (Severino, Bragioni) “mandoline” (Nicola), “mandole”, “tambour de bas organisé”), Giustinelli (composition), Menegheti (composition), Rossignol (singing)|
|27/09/1766||Rossignol & troupe||Amsterdam||Keizerskroon||25/09/1766, 27/09/1766||f 1||4 Italians (“mandoline” (Nicolai)), Bouillon (tickets), Rossignol (organization)|
|12/11/1766||Rossignol & troupe||The Hague||Doelen||10/11/1766||daalder||5 Venetians (organization, “tambour de bas organisé”, “mandoline”), Nicolini (singing), Rossignol (singing)|
|19/11/1766||Rossignol & troupe||Rotterdam||Doelen||18/11/1766||30 stuivers||4 Venetians (organization, “mandolino” (Gaëtani), accompaniment (Tessalino)), Refour (tickets), Rossignol|
|26/11/1766||Rossignol & troupe||Rotterdam||Doelen||25/11/1766||30 stuivers||4 Venetians (“tambour de basque met orgel”, “mandolino” (Gaëtani)), Rossignol (singing)|
|05/12/1766||Rossignol & troupe||Rotterdam||Doelen||02/12/1766, 04/12/1766||–||Reissue of previous concert, hence: [4 Venetians (“tambour de basque met orgel,” “mandolino” (Gaëtani)), Rossignol (singing)]|
|03/01/1767||Rossignol & troupe||Middelburg||Schuttershof||01/01/1767, 03/01/1767||first place: 1/2 daalder; second place: 1/4 daalder||Courtois (tickets), Rossignol (organization, singing), Rossingol’s company (“mandelin”)|
|10/03/1768||Mazzuchelli||Amsterdam||Keizerskroon||05/03/1768, 08/03/1768, 10/03/1768||30 stuivers||Bach (organization, harpsichord), Boffeli (singing), De Hey (organization, violin), Mazzuchelli (organisation, “Napolitaansche mandolin”), Wyers (tickets)|
|07/04/1770||Leone||Rotterdam||Concertzaal||04/04/1770, 07/04/1770||–||Leone de Naples (“mandaline”, composition), Paradis (singing), Mr. Sirmen (violin), Mad. Sirmen (violin)|
|28/07/1770||Rossignol & troupe||Groningen||Wapen van Stad & Lande||27/07/1770||first place: f 1; second place: 10 stuivers||Rossignol’s company (organization, “mandoline” (Cajetani), “mandole” (Peres), singing (Peres)), Rossignol (organization, singing)|
|31/07/1770||Rossignol & troupe||Groningen||Wapen van Stad & Lande||31/07/1770||first place: f 1; second place: 10 stuivers; third place: een sestehalf (5,5 stuivers)||Rossignol’s company (organization, “mandoline” (Nicolaas Cajetani), “mandole” (Severino Peres), singing (Severino Peres)), Rossignol (organization, singing, “viool zonder snaren”)|
|01/08/1770||Rossignol & troupe||Groningen||Wapen van Stad & Lande||31/07/1770||first place: f 1; second place: 10 stuivers; third place: een sestehalf (5,5 stuivers)||Rossignol’s company (organization, “mandoline” (Nicolaas Cajetani), “mandole” (Severino Peres), singing (Severino Peres)), Rossignol (organization, singing, “viool zonder snaren”)|
|02/08/1770||Rossignol & troupe||Groningen||Wapen van Stad & Lande||31/07/1770||first place: f 1; second place: 10 stuivers; third place: een sestehalf (5,5 stuivers)||Rossignol’s company (organization, “mandoline” (Nicolaas Cajetani), “mandole” (Severino Peres), singing (Severino Peres)), Rossignol (organization, singing, “viool zonder snaren”)|
|28/08/1770||Rossignol & troupe||Zwolle||Hof van Holland||28/08/1770||f 1-10||Rossignol’s company (organization, “mandoline” (Nicolaas Cajetani), “mandola” (Severino Peris), singing (Nicolass Cajetani, Severino Peris)), Rossignol (organization, singing)|
Third period: 1771-1774 (12)
|06/11/1772||Zaniboni||Amsterdam||Armes d’Amsterdam||03/11/1772, 05/11/1772||f 2||Hummel (tickets), Zaniboni (organization, “amandolino a douze cordes”)|
|05/01/1773 (cancelled)||Zaniboni||Amsterdam||Armes d’Amsterdam||01/01/1773, 02/01/1773||40 stuivers||de Salvagni (organization, singing), Hummel (tickets), Zaniboni (“mandoline à douze cordes”)|
|09/03/1773||Zaniboni||Amsterdam||Armes d’Amsterdam||04/03/1773, 06/03/1773, 09/03/1773||f 2||de Salvagni (singing), Hummel (tickets), Ramm (organization, oboe), Zaniboni (organization, “mandolino”)|
|06/07/1773||Zaniboni||Amsterdam||Damplein||03/07/1773||f 2||Hummel (tickets), Zaniboni (organization, “amandolino à douze cordes”)|
|19/11/1773||Zaniboni||Amsterdam||Armes d’Amsterdam||16/11/1773, 18/11/1773||40 stuivers||Benozzi (cello), Casaer (singing), Hummel (tickets), Kreusser (organization, composition), Raimondi (violin), Richter (organization, harpsichord), Zaniboni (“mandoline”)|
|23/11/1773||Zaniboni||Amsterdam||Armes d’Amsterdam||20/11/1773, 23/11/1773||f 2||Hummel (tickets), Raimondi (violin), Richter (harpsichord), Zaniboni (organization, “mandolino”)|
|14/12/1773||Zaniboni||Amsterdam||Armes d’Amsterdam||14/12/1773||f 2||Benozzi (organization, cello, singing), Markordt (tickets), Raimondi (violin), Zaniboni (“mandoline”)|
|28/12/1773||Zaniboni||Amsterdam||Rondeel||24/12/1773, 25/12/1773, 28/12/1773||f 2||Hummel (tickets), Vermeulen (violin), Zaniboni (“mandolino”)|
|13/01/1774||Fridzeri||The Hague||Theatre Français||05/01/1774||–||Friseri ([Fridzeri] organization, composition, violin, “mandoline”), Demonçel (tickets)|
|05/02/1774||Fridzeri||Haarlem||Prinsenhof||01/02/1774, 05/02/1774||f 1-10||Cloribus (tickets), Frizeri ([Fridzeri] organization, violin, “mandoline”)|
|14/02/1774||Fridzeri||Amsterdam||Armes d’Amsterdam||12/02/1774||f 2||Frizeri ([Fridzeri] organization), Hummel (tickets)|
|17/02/1774||Zaniboni||Amsterdam||Manège||12/02/1774, 17/02/1774||f 2||Golvin (organization, bassoon), Heneberg (clarinet), Hummel (tickets), Neytz (singing), Schick (violin), Zaniboni (“mandolino”)|
Fourth period: 1775-1778 (10)
|28/11/1775||Gervasio||Utrecht||Stadsmuziekzaal||27/11/1775||f 2||Mr. Gervasio (“mandolina”), Mad. Gervasio (singing), Haanebrink (tickets), Ximenez (direction, violin, viola)|
|19/12/1775||Gervasio||Amsterdam||Armes d’Amsterdam||16/12/1775, 18/12/1775||f 2||Cirri (cello), Mr. Gervasio (organization, “mandolino”), Mad. Gervasio (organization, singing), Hummel (tickets)|
|01/03/1776||Gervasio||Amsterdam||Armes d’Amsterdam||27/02/1776, 29/02/1776||f 2||Casaer (organization, singing), Mr. Gervasio (“mandoline), Mad. Gervasio (singing), Hummel (tickets)|
|16/04/1776||Gervasio||Amsterdam||Armes d’Amsterdam||16/04/1776||f 2||Fani (organization, violin, viola, double bass), Mr. Gervasio (“mandoline”), Mad. Gervasio (singing), Haydn (composition), Hummel (tickets)|
|10/12/1776||Gervasio||Amsterdam||Armes d’Amsterdam||30/11/1776, 03/12/1776||f 2||Agazzi (cello), Mr. Gervasio (organization, “mandoline”), Mad. Gervasio (organization, singing), Gluck (composition), Hummel (tickets), Sacchini (composition), Mad. Schroter (singing), Mr. Schroter (“le jeune”, violin)|
|08/02/1777||Gervasio||Haarlem||Concertzaal||04/02/1777||f 1-10||Mr. Gervasio (organization, “mandeline”), Mad. Gervasio (organization, singing), Siegers (tickets)|
|11/03/1777||Gervasio||Rotterdam||Concertzaal||08/03/1777||30 stuivers||Mr. Gervasio (organization, “mandoline”), Mad. Gervasio (organization, singing), Spandow ([Spandau], hunting horn), Zentgraaff (tickets)|
|20/03/1777||Gervasio||Rotterdam||Concertzaal||15/03/1777, 18/03/1777||–||Mr. Gervasio (“mandoline”), Mad. Gervasio (singing), Zentgraaff (tickets, organization)|
|08/04/1777||Gervasio||Amsterdam||Armes d’Amsterdam||08/04/1777||f 2||Fani (organization, violin, double bass, hunting horn), Fleuri (organization, singing), Mr. Gervasio (“mandolini”), Gluck (composition), Hallemans (singing), Hummel (tickets), Ruloffs (violin), Spandau (composition), Thibaut (tickets)|
|10/03/1778||Cifolelli||Amsterdam||Armes d’Amsterdam||07/03/1778||f 2||Cifolelli (organization, tickets), Cifolelli (“fils ainé”, “mandoline”), Cifolelli (“petit Cifolelli agé de 7 ans”, singing), Hummel (tickets), Polet (tickets)|
Fifth period: 1786, 1792, 1802 (5)
|20/03/1786||Ricciardi||Amsterdam||Rondeel||16/03/1786||f 2||Agazzi (viola d’amore), Clairville (singing), Rauppe (cello), Ricciardi (organization, “mandoline”), Seeburger (hunting horn), Sacchini (composition), Soligni (singing), Schmitt (tickets), Tenducci (composition)|
|31/07/1786||Rossignol [&etc]||Utrecht||Muziekcollege||31/07/1786||f 2||4 Venetians (organization, “mandoline”, “mandole”, “tambour de bas organisé”), Joubert (violin), Rossignol (singing), Schwitzer (tickets)|
|13/07/1792||“Italiaansche Comique Zanger”||Amsterdam||Huis ten Bosch||13/07/1792||12 stuivers||Boekhof (organization), “Italiaansche comique zanger” (singing, mandolin, guitar)|
|25/04/1792||Cifolelli||Rotterdam||Schouwburg||24/04/1792||–||Boullet (singing), Bussard (singing), Cifolelli (mandolin, composition) d’Aleyrac (composition), du Bocage (singing), “Fransche Operisten uit ‘s Hage” (organization, opera), Gretry (composition), St. Amans (singing), St. Ralier (singing)|
|24/03/1802||Ricciardi||Amsterdam||Théâtre Français||20/03/1802||f 2||Baillet (singing), Deyris (singing), Guerin (tickets), Klyt (“le fils”, clarinet), Lobé (singing), Mançeau (singing), Muller (violin), Ricciardi (organization, “mandolino”), Ricciardi (“fils agé de neuf ans”, forte piano)|
Sixth period: 1804, 1807
|27/03/1804||Folchini||Leeuwarden||Doelen||24/03/1804, 27/03/1804||f 1||“Faschini” ([Folchini] singing, “mandoline”)|
|11/07/1807||Folchini||The Hague||Theatre Français||21/07/1807||–||Cimarosa (composition), da Capua (composition), Folchini (mandolin, singing), Monsigny (composition), “Theatre Français de La Haye” (opera), Varini (“fer harmonique”, singing)|
|22/07/1807||Folchini||The Hague||Theatre Français||21/07/1807||–||Cimarosa (composition), da Capua (composition), Folchini (mandolin, singing), Monsigny (composition), “Theatre Français de La Haye” (opera), Varini (“fer harmonique”, singing)|
|24/07/1807||Folchini||The Hague||Theatre Français||24/07/1807||–||Cimarosa (composition), da Capua (composition), Folchini (mandolin, singing), Méhul (composition), “Theatre Français de La Haye” (opera), Varini (“fer harmonique”, singing)|
Seventh period: 1818, 1838-1842 (17)
|10/02/1818||Booy & Comorelli||Middelburg||Schuttershof||07/02/1818||f 1||Booy (organization, chin patting), Commarelli ([Comorelli] organization, guitar, mandolin)|
|16/02/1818||Booy & Comorelli||Middelburg||Schuttershof||14/02/1818||f 1||Booy (organization, chin patting, guitar), Comorelli (organization, guitar, mandolin)|
|28/05/1838||Reggi & Pochintesta||Leiden||Koffijhuis De Twee Kolommen||28/05/1838||f 1-10||Reggi (brothers, “mandolinisten”), Pochintesta (brothers, “mandolinisten”)|
|16/08/1838||Reggi & Pochintesta||Rotterdam||Vauxhall Doele||16/08/1838||f 1-10||Reggi (brothers, “mandoline”), Pochintesta (brothers, “mandoline”), “groot orkest”, Hutschenruyter (direction)|
|18/08/1838||Reggi & Pochintesta||Rotterdam||Vauxhall Doele||16/08/1838||f 1-10||Reggi (brothers, “mandoline”), Pochintesta (brothers, “mandoline”), “groot orkest”, Hutschenruyter (direction)|
|31/10/1838||Peggi (Reggi?)||Breda||Theatre Français||30/10/1838, 31/10/1838||f 1-25||Alexandre (direction), Bellini (composition), Blum (singing), Decourrcy (composition), Mulheim (violin), Peggi ([Reggi] brothers, “mandolinistes”), Rossini (composition), Strauss (composition), Vial (composition),|
|30/11/1840||Comorelli||Warffum||?||01/12/1840||–||Comorelli (guitar, mandolin), Mr. Von Raumstaetter (singing), Ms. Von Raumstaetter (singing)|
|05/12/1840||Comorelli||Warffum||?||01/12/1840||–||Comorelli (guitar, mandolin), Mr. Von Raumstaetter (singing), Ms. Von Raumstaetter (singing)|
|27/12/1840||Comorelli||Zuidhorn||Wedw. Ossetjuk||25/12/1840||49 cents||Comorelli (guitar, mandolin), Mr. Von Rammstaetter ([Von Raumstaetter] singing), Ms. Von Rammstaetter ([Von Raumstaetter] singing)|
|28/12/1840||Comorelli||Grijpskerk||J. De Boer||25/12/1840||49 cents||Comorelli (guitar, mandolin), Mr. Von Rammstaetter ([Von Raumstaetter] singing), Ms. Von Rammstaetter ([Von Raumstaetter] singing)|
|09/01/1841||Comorelli||Grijpskerk||?||08/01/1841||–||similar to earlier concerts, hence: [Comorelli (guitar, mandolin), Mr. Von Rammstaetter ([Von Raumstaetter] singing), Ms. Von Rammstaetter ([Von Raumstaetter] singing)]|
|13/03/1841||[Comorelli]||Leeuwarden||Drie Romersi||12/03/1841||–||“Tiroler zangers” ([Von Raumstaetter], singing), [Comorelli], guitar, mandolin)|
|14/03/1841||[Comorelli]||Leeuwarden||Drie Romersi||12/03/1841||–||“Tiroler zangers” ([Von Raumstaetter], singing), [Comorelli], guitar, mandolin)|
|15/03/1841||[Comorelli]||Leeuwarden||Drie Romersi||12/03/1841||–||“Tiroler zangers” ([Von Raumstaetter], singing), [Comorelli], guitar, mandolin)|
|28/03/1841||Pochintesta||Amsterdam||Zaal de Duizend Kolommen||29/03/1841||vrij||Dunot (singing), Pochintesta (“madolinist”), Zelas (guitar)|
|01/04/1841||Pochintesta & Puggi||Amsterdam||Zaal de Duizend Kolommen||01/04/1841||vrij||Dunot (singing), Pochintesta (“madoliniste”), Puggi ([Reggi], “madoliniste”), Zelas (guitar)|
|13/04/1841||Pochintesta||Amsterdam||Zaal de Duizend Kolommen||14/04/1841||vrij||Dunot (singing), Pochintesta (brothers, “madolinistes”), Zelas (guitar)|
|30/05/1841||Comorelli||Groningen||Concertzaal||28/05/1841||49 cents||Comarelli ([Comorelli] “mandoline”), Theodor (singing), Zellas ([Zelas], guitar),|
|15/03/1842||Pochintesta||Middelburg||Concertzaal||15/03/1842||75 cents||Pochintesta (brothers, organization, “mandoline”, guitar)|
Mandolin players – the usual suspects
Several of the musicians playing the mandolin in the Netherlands are well-known paragons of the mandolin elsewhere. This chapter aims to take a look at these musicians and what we know of them, and why they might have been active in the Netherlands.
|Fridzeri||3||13/01/1774, 05/02/1774, 14/02/1774|
|Gervasio||9||28/11/1775, 19/12/1775, 01/03/1776, 16/04/1776, 10/12/1776, 08/02/1777, 11/03/1777, 20/03/1777, 08/04/1777|
|Merchi||11||29/03/1759, 23/04/1759, 24/01/1760, 01/05/1760, 25/02/1761, 14/01/1762, 10/02/1762, 08/02/1763, 28/03/1764, 30/04/1764, 13/11/1764|
|Zaniboni||9||06/11/1772, 05/01/1773 (cancelled), 09/03/1773, 06/07/1773, 19/11/1773, 23/11/1773, 14/12/1773, 28/12/1773, 17/02/1774|
Mandolin players – unknown factors
|Comorelli||11||10/02/1818, 16/02/1818, 30/11/1840, 05/12/1840, 27/12/1840, 28//12/1840, 09/01/1841, 13/03/1841, 14/03/1841, 15/03/1841, 30/05/1841|
|Folchini||4||27/03/1804, 11/07/1807, 22/07/1807, 24/07/1807|
|“Italiaansche Comique Zanger”||1||13/07/1792|
|Pochintesta (brothers, sometimes togethers with Reggi brothers)||7||28/05/1838, 16/08/1838, 18/08/1838, 28/03/1841, 01/04/1841, 13/04/1841, 15/03/1842|
|Reggi (brothers, sometimes together with Pochintesta brothers)||5||28/05/1838, 16/08/1838, 18/08/1838, 31/10/1838, 01/04/1841|
|Rossignol & troupe (Nicolas Cajetani, Severino Peres)||21||04/08/1766, 06/08/1766, 16/08/1766, 20/08/1766, 23/08/1766, 06/09/1766, 13/09/1766, 17/09/1766, 20/09/1766, 27/09/1766, 31/07/1786|
Other participants: musicians, organisers, ticket sellers
|Agazzi||Cello, viola d’amore||2||10/12/1776, 20/03/1786|
|Booy||Chin patting||2||10/02/1818, 16/02/1818|
|Bouillon||Tickets||7||16/08/1766, 20/08/1766, 23/08/1766, 06/09/1766, 13/09/1766, 17/09/1766, 27/09/1766|
|Casaer||Organization, singing||2||19/11/1773, 01/03/1776|
|Cimarosa||Composition||4||27/03/1804, 11/07/1807, 22/07/1807, 24/07/1807|
|da Capua||Composition||3||11/07/1807, 22/07/1807, 24/07/1807|
|De Hey||Organization, violin||1||10/03/1768|
|Dunot||Singing||3||28/03/1841, 01/04/1841, 13/04/1841|
|Esser||Singing, violin, viola||1||28/03/1764|
|de Salvagni||Singing||2||05/01/1773, 09/03/1773|
|Fani||Organization, violin, viola, double bass, hunting horn||2||16/04/1776, 08/04/1777|
|Fransche operisten uit ‘s Hage||Organization, opera||1||25/04/1792|
|Hummel||Tickets||21||29/03/1759, 24/01/1760, 14/01/1762, 08/02/1763, 28/03/1764, 16/10/1765, 06/08/1766, 06/11/1772, 05/01/1773, 06/07/1773, 19/11/1773, 23/11/1773, 28/12/1773, 14/02/1774, 17/02/1774, 19/12/1775, 01/03/1776, 16/04/1776, 10/12/1776, 08/04/1777 , 10/03/1778|
|Klyt (le fils)||Clarinet||1||24/03/1802|
|Magalli||Organization, singing||2||14/01/1762, 08/02/1763|
|Mellini||Singing||3||24/01/1760, 01/05/1760, 08/02/1763|
|Raimondi||Violin||3||19/11/1773, 23/11/1773, 14/12/1773|
|Richter||Organization, harpsichord||2||19/11/1773, 23/11/1773|
|Mr. Schroter (le jeune)||Violin||1||10/12/1776|
|Spandau||Composition, hunting horn||2||11/03/1777, 08/04/1777|
|Varini||Fer harmonique||3||11/07/1807, 22/07/1807, 24/07/1807|
|Von Raumstaetter (Mr.)||Singing||8||30/11/1840, 05/12/1840, 27/12/1840, 28/12/1840, 09/01/1841, 13/03/1841, 14/03/1841, 15/03/1841|
|Von Raumstaetter (Ms.)||Singing||8||30/11/1840, 05/12/1840, 27/12/1840, 28/12/1840, 09/01/1841, 13/03/1841, 14/03/1841, 15/03/1841|
|Ximenez||Direction, violin, viola||1||28/11/1775|
|Zelas||Guitar||4||28/03/1841, 01/04/1841, 13/04/1841, 30/05/1841|
|Zentgraaff||Organization, tickets||2||11/03/1777, 20/03/1777|
- Rasch, Rudolf (2000), art. Johann Christian Bach in Eighteenth-Century Dutch Newspaper Announcements, in Tijdschrift van de Koninklijke Vereninging voor Nederlandse Muziekgeschiedenis (vol. 50, n. 1/2), p. 5-51.
- Rasch, Rudolf (2018), online older version of Muziek in de Republiek, last accessed on 26/09/2021. (This online version includes a lot of documentation and sources not available in the physical more recent edition.)
- Rasch, Rudolf (2018), Muziek in de Republiek: Muziek en maatschappij in de Republiek der Zeven Verenigde Nederlanden 1572-1795, (Muziek uit de Republiek, n. 5) Utrecht.
- Tyler, James & Sparks, Paul (1989), The Early Mandolin. The Mandolino and the Neapolitan Mandoline, (Early Music Series, n. 9) Oxford.
- van Hasselt, Luc (1979), art. Bach op bezoek, in Mens en Melodie (n. 34), p. 33-40.
- Van Tichelen, Pieter (2020), art. Tolerance between instrumental repertories or commercial tricks? Mandolin-related prints until the early 19th century, in Phoibos, vol. 18, p. 153-214.