The mandolin in München ca. 1840-60 part 1: Pierre Moralt, Le rêve d’un bal (München, ca. 1855)

I’m studying a sizeable number of manuscripts I recently retrieved. One of these is so exciting I couldn’t wait to publish about it and I have rushed getting out a blog post and edition. (Hence some other ongoing work will be taking longer.) It’s unlikely anything in the current mandolin literature and extremely interesting, both in a scholarly and musical way. The background story of this piece is also quite fascinating, so this blog post goes on a bit. 😉

The manuscripts title pages

Two manuscripts are preserved, one containing the piano part, the other the mandolin part.1 Both have the exact same title (the mandolin part gives a slight extra on the first name of Cramer).

Le rêve d’un bal,
Morceau de Salon
pour la
composé et dédié
J(oh). B. Cramer
par son ami
Pièrre Moralt

Johann Baptist Cramer (1811-1860) and the revival of “old instruments” in München

Johann Baptist Cramer (1811-1860, sometimes spelled Crammer or Kramer) was a mandolin player active in München (and should not be confused with the keyboard player, composer and publisher based in London which was also active at the same time). He should also not be confused with Ern(e)st Krähmer, the oboe player / composer active in Vienna who composed music a few decades earlier. The manuscripts distinguish between the names quite clearly, also helping by often quoting the first name as well.

The usual mandolin history reference publications don’t seem to mention Johann Cramer at all.2 This is not entirely surprising, as most regarded the period between 1820-1860 the dark ages of mandolin history. I’ve detailed why this is not exactly true as a sideline in a paper which is pending publication.3

Though Cramer did not get much attention in the usual mandolin reference materials, digging into secondary sources such as newspapers quickly reveals some background. Cramer appears as mandolin player as early as 1840, and continued as late as 1859.4 His main position was as a timpani player (“Pauker”) in the royal court chapel. This orchestra grew in importance around the mid-19th century under Lachner (and even ended up attracting Wagner and Richard Strauss later on in the 19th century).

Cramer’s mandolin activities take a turn in 1843, when he is one of the founding fathers of a new ensemble, aiming to revive what they claim to be old, forgotten musical instruments.5 The other members are Wilhelm Moralt (1815-1874), Gustav Pordesch (1817-1870) and Karl Feldhaus (before 1839 – after 1879), each also a regular member of the royal court chapel in München. The ensemble and their claim of reviving old instruments clearly appeals to audiences, as there is a steady stream of concerts throughout the years, all within Bayern and most in München itself. Though there is a pause following the revolution of 1848, activities are restored in 1852 and lasted at least until 1859.

Over the years, the musicians and their instruments changed. The exact list can be consulted in endnote 4. To give a broad idea, in the first years, it’s almost always a quartet consisting of philomel, viola d’amore, mandolin and mandora. In the later years, the ensemble extends to two viola d’amore, corno inglese, viola da gamba, mandolin and mandora. Occasionally, the zither also makes an appearance. The only constant in the musicians and instruments is Johann Cramer and his mandolin. As Cramer’s activities predate the ensemble and he constantly takes part, we can assume he was the major force of the ensemble.

The claim of reviving old instruments does not extend to recreating old music. The ensemble seems to have played original compositions as well as adaptations of contemporary works. All of this fits with the inquisitive mind of the 19th century, but which did not put historical accuracy as a top priority. This likely also includes the instruments themselves. The philomel is probably a 19th century invention rather than an old revived instrument, and the mandoras of Tiefenbrunner are new creations rather than following old models (see below).

Cramer’s mandolin method (München, ca. 1854)

Cramer is the author of an unusual mandolin method, Anweisung die Mandoline von selbst zu erlernen nebst einigen Uebungsstücken. Nach Bortolazzis Methode für die sechs-saitige Mandoline eingerichtet (link to D-Mbs 4 320). This was featured in a paper by Silvia Cicic, Alcuni elementi per una datazione del primo(?) metodo per mandolino milanese. It was first presented during the symposium Il mandolino a Milano e in Lombardia nei secoli XVIII e XIX held at Milan Conservatory (12-15/5/2022). The method is usually dated “circa 1860”, but one secondary source already mentions the method in 1854.6 As the title states, it is essentially based on Bortolazzi’s method (links to D-Mbs 4 2190), but has been adapted to fit the Milanese/Lombard type. It doesn’t reuse the plates of the original print by Bortolazzi, and I doubt they got approval from Breitkopf & Härtel, who were still selling the original method.

A second source of information on the method is obtained by looking into the publisher. The method was published in München by Georg Tiefenbrunner (1812-1880), a well-known München based luthier. Early on, he studied in Landshut, München and Augsburg. Upon marrying a München shopkeeper’s daughter, Tiefenbrunner obtained a license to sell his instruments. Eventually, he took over the family’s business in 1842, essentially the start of his own luthier’s workshop in München.

Tiefenbrunner showcased six (Milanese/Lombard) mandolins and a couple of mandoras in 1854.7 Besides this, Tiefenbrunner is mentioned a number of times around 1855 claiming to bring the mandolin and mandora to a new level.8 Likely Tiefenbrunner’s publication of the mandolin method was linked to his attempts to create a market for his mandolins and mandoras. Hence the dating of 1854 (or shortly before) seems to be confirmed, even if through circumstantial evidence. In a sense, this is an example of history repeating itself, as the mandolin method by Leone was also sold by a Paris luthier, Levinville. (In fact, the drawing of a mandolin in the method shows an example fitting Levinville’s instruments as well.)

Most surviving instruments by Tiefenbrunner are zithers, though a number of guitars and violins have turned up. Even some mandoras were preserved. Currently, I don’t know any surviving mandolins by Tiefenbrunner, but we can hope one might still surface. Tiefenbrunner had some links to the royal court,9 and might well have been involved in the creativity for “old forgotten instruments” to be revived. Most likely the mandora used was build or maintained by him, possibly the mandolin, but it doesn’t seem to far a jump to assume he might even have provided the philomel or viola d’amore.

Cramer’s mandolin

We know very little about the exact design of Cramer’s mandolin or his contemporaries during the mid-19th century in München. As far as I know, no instruments survived from that period and region. The method also doesn’t contain any pictures and neither do I know of any paintings or other documentary evidence we can link to Cramer.

At least we know for certain the plectrum material Cramer used. In contrast to Bortolazzi, who mentions either a quill or a wooden plectrum, Cramer describes using tortoiseshell. Though there are no further details, this at least gives some insight.

From both the manuscripts and his method, we know that Cramer must have played a Milanese inspired instrument of six strings or courses mainly tuned in quarts (g-b-e’-a’-d”-g”). Both the single-string version as well as the double course instrument still existed in München at the time.10 It is very hard to prove either way what Cramer used, though it might be presumed he already moved to an evolved version with single strings as well as a raised and extended fingerboard. Some mandolin historians have started to use the term Lombard mandolin for this evolved type (usually linked to Carlo Albertini and contemporary later 19th century luthiers, see image below).

Historically speaking, both the terms Milanese and Lombard were used without distinction, so it can sometimes be somewhat confusing, though having more specific terminology can be useful. The method and manuscripts linked to Cramer only use the generic term “Mandoline”, and the one time the method uses a more specific term, Cramer just copied Bortolazzi in using “Mailänder” (Milanese).

This makes it all harder to state anything with certainty, but most likely Cramer already played on an evolved version of the Milanese type. The general way of evolution – which is also present in Tiefenbrunner’s other instruments – is to use single strings instead of courses, as well as a raised and extended fingerboard. Some mandolin historians have started to use the term Lombard mandolin for this type. Historically speaking, both terms were used without distinction, so it can be somewhat confusing. The method and manuscripts only use the generic term “Mandoline”, and the one time the method uses a more specific term, Cramer follow Bortolazzi in using “Mailänder” (Milanese).

We are further surrounded by some unkown variables in the area of tuning pegs and strings used. Nothing seems mentioned clearly in the Cramer method. Bortolazzi gives some details but that information is mostly linked to his preferred mandolin type. We know from early 19th century sources that both full metal and full gut strings sets were used on Milanese/Lombard mandolins. Unless further information comes forward, we won’t know what Cramer used. Similarly, we won’t know what types of tuning pegs were used. It could well be the typical wooden tuning pegs similar to the lute and violin, but Tiefenbrunner already used mechanical tuners on quite a number of instruments (for example zither, but also on mandora).

The catalist for the Milanese/Lombard mandolin popularity in München 1840-1860

A further question about the mandolin in München around 1850 is: why does the mandolin turn up, and why the Milanese/Lombard type? As can be expected, the interest for the (Milanese) mandolin did not appear out of thin air. There is an obvious suspect: Pietro Vimercati. This paragon of the mandolin famously went on quite a lot of concert tours in the decades between 1820 and 1850. And indeed, we can prove he was in München and gave concerts (confirmed in 1820, 1822, 1828, 1834, 1835 and 1841).11 München was an upcoming city after the Napoleonic wars, and it seems to have been favoring Vimercati. In some cases he stayed and played quite a series of public concerts before moving on.

There are other musicians who played mandolin in München in the decades before Cramer, but none come close to Vimercati. Other mandolin players mentioned in adverts are Fridzeri (1804), a certain “Bongiorny” (1837) and (Antonio) Reggi (1839) (for details, see endnote 11). Fridzeri is well-known from his antecedents in France in the 18th century. The name Reggi is also known, as the Reggi brothers toured elsewhere in Europe. As far as I know Bortolazzi never made it to München, but a music shop in the city lists several works by him and von Call in 1822 (Bortolazzi’s method, variations op. 8, sonate op. 9, von Call’s op. 8 and 108).12

The conclusion is obvious: the interest in the Milanese/Lombard mandolin in München was most likely instigated by Vimercati. At the moment, we can’t prove Cramer and Vimercati met, but it’s not a big leap of faith to suspect they might have been in touch. It could help explain why certain music linked to Vimercati turned up in mandolin manuscripts linked to München.13 Obviously, it could also have been obtained in any number of ways, but at the moment, this is as plausible as (or even more likely than) any other explanation we have.

Pierre (Peter) Moralt

The composer, Pierre (or Peter) Moralt, was known as violin player of considerable standing. We should not confuse him with Wilhelm Moralt, the philomel player who was another founder of the München ensemble reviving old instruments. In fact, there are quite a lot of musicians in the Moralt family, and a number of them worked or trained in München.

Besides Peter’s activities as a musician at the court, he also went on a number of concert trips. Very little of his music seems to have been preserved. I know of only a small salon piece for piano dedicated to the Princess of Thurn and Taxis, and a concert piece for violin and orchestra (concertino in as) which can be linked to a concert of 1847.

On at least one concert, on 5/11/1845, Peter Moralt played as well as Cramer (and the old instrument revival ensemble). This at least proves that besides being colleagues of the same generation at the royal court chapel, their paths seem to have crossed on other occasions as well. The title page even suggests a genuine friendship between them.

The music

The piano part is 19 pages (including the title page), all in landscape orientation. The mandolin part is 8 pages (including the title page), all in portrait orientation. The mandolin part is written in the same hand as most of the Krähmer manuscripts. The piano part, however, is written in a different hand. I’m inclined to think this might be an autograph, but there is no way to prove this until other material by Moralt becomes available. The mandolin part lacks the dynamics which are provided in the piano part. It contains fingering, but some of this was also added and altered in pencil by a later hand. The mandolin part has a few mistakes which seem to be copyist mistakes, and suggest to me the mandolin part was copied from a score.

The title of “dream of a ball” of course is a very romantic idea and quite a few mid-19th century salon pieces used such fantastical titles. For example, the already mentioned print by Moralt for pianoforte, was titled L’impression des voyages dans les alpes bernoises. Morceau de salon pour le piano. Other pieces by the old instrument revival group were also called “rêve”. The dream world held a strange fascination during the romantic era, inspiring literature, painting as well as composers. Combining it with a ball makes it only the more interesting as an inspiration for a salon piece.

With 460 unique bars, the piece is quite sizeable. None of the other early piano-mandolin pieces are of such a scale. Hummel’s Grande Sonata comes the closest, but falls short by quite a margin. The piece also is extraordinary in other respects. As it doesn’t follow standard sonata constraints, the composer switches through several musical atmospheres and themes. This of course fits with both the salon background as well as the idea of a dream with potentially capricious shifts.

The piece starts with an Andante con moto in C metrum and the key of g minor, an introduction starting with pianoforte solo, which leads to the mandolin part starting after 20 bars. This movement gives way to L[‘]istesso [tempo] in 12/8. All of this these first 46 bars are introductionary, and use a lot of passage work, and lead to the next movement, Thema Allegretto in 3/8 and G major. After the intial theme in the mandolin, the piano plays a contrasting theme. This leads to Var. 1, again with mandolin, and an almost reprise of the piano theme, but which now leads to the next movement.

Next up is a Siciliano. Andantino in C major and 6/8, with a lot of embellishments in the mandolin part. This sicilian interjection is rather short-lived and next up is an Rondo Allegro vivace in 2/4 in G major. Though the Rondo returns some thematic material, it’s certainly not a tradition rondo movement. Its end feels much like the development part of a sonata, and marks a buildup towards the final movement, a Prestissimo in the same key and metrum.

It seems this piece might have fit well in the ensemble reviving old instruments, were it not that it is written for piano and mandolin. I have found no concert adverts or reviews that mention this piece being played. However, it might just not have been mentioned. The fact that the instrumentation is for piano and mandolin does not mean it can’t have been part of the ensemble’s repertoire. The piano part could theoretically be a reduction of the other parts. In fact, there are “tutti” and “solo” indications that might be interpreted as evidence for such a theory. It seems at least a plausible explanation for these indications.

The composition itself is also of a total different style than most early mandolin-keyboard repertoire. Very different is the aestethic: It bears influences by the early romantic ideas of abstrac instrumental music. The opening by the piano already set the tone, but the chromatic lines and harmonic progressions here and there also show that mandolin literature has finally got a piece which fits the early romantic period. The composition also shows the craftsmanship of a well-trained musician. It might not be of the level of some of the more famous contemporary composers, but it’s certainly not of third rank quality. Personally, I’m extatic that we have such a beautiful, sizeable and high quality piece from a period and place that wasn’t yet on the map of mandolin history.

The mandolin part shows a high level of virtuosity, mostly in scales, some trills or grace notes, occasionally using other techniques. The technical degree is high enough to conclude it can only have been meant for a professional mandolin player. The piece is a true testimony to the level of mandolin playing by Cramer, and proves him a true successor to Vimercati.


As usual, I’ve included a modern critical edition of the music:
Mandolin part
Piano part
Audio from edition software


1 Piano part: Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, München, Mus.N. 122,1014-1. Mandolin part: id., Mus.N. 122,1014-2. Both were part of the private collection Gitarristische Sammlung Fritz Walter und Gabriele Wiedemann which was donated to the BSB. As can be glimpsed from this post, there are other manuscripts from the same collection which I am currently investigating.

2 No entry about Cramer could be found in the usual reference works (such as Philp J. Bone, Philip, The Guitar & Mandolin, London, 1914; Konrad Wölki, Geschichte der Mandoline, 2nd edition, Hamburg, 1974; Robert Janssens, Geschiedenis van de mandoline, Antwerpen, 1982; Paul R. Sparks, The Classical Mandolin, Oxford, 1995.)

3 The article is pending publication. Pieter Van Tichelen, About the Pieces for Mandolin and Orchestra by Ernst Krähmer. The Transition From the Classical to the Early Romantic Era in Mandolin Repertory in Austria, in Il mandolino a Milano e Lombardia, Milan, 2024?, p. ?. Of particular interest are the chapters Traditional Mandolin History’s View: the Dark Age and Secondary Sources: 1800-1850. I will update the reference when published.
Summarizing: though the performances in public concerts decrease, and though there is an even bigger reduction of musical sources, the mandolin did still appear in public concerts held at important venues, and the abundance of secondary sources proves its continued activity.


ConcertMusicians & instrumentsReferences
Privat Musikverein 27/04/1840Mandoline (Cramer)MT 1/05/1840, nr. 121, p. 495
Ernst Mascheck, grosse Saale des Frohsinns 15/05/1840Mandoline (Cramer)MT 13/05/1840, nr. 133, p. 553
MTP 13/05/1840, nr. 134, p. 544
Privat Musikverein 16/11/1840Mandoline (Cramer)BNZ 19/11/1840, nr. 184, p. 747
Konzert des hrn. Jos. Braun im Museum 02/04/1844Philomela (Moralt), Viola d’amour (Pordesch), Mandoline (Cramer), Mandora (Feldhaus)BV 01/04/1844, nr. 53, p. 211
BV 05/04/1844, nr. 55, p. 219
Gesellschaft Zufriendenheit im Zweibrücken-Saale 9/03/1844Philomela (Moralt), Viola d’amour (Pordesch), Mandoline (Cramer), Mandora (Feldhaus)MT 14/03/1844, nr. 74, p. 373
im Salon Ihrer kais. Hoh. der Prinzessin Luitpold etc 6/03/1845Viole d’amour, Mandoline, Mandora etc. (mentioned are Feldhaus, Kramer [sic], Moralt and Pordesch)BV 07/03/1845, nr. 38, p. 163
in den Appartements I. Maj. der Königin, 7/06/1845Viole d’amour (Feldhaus), Philomele (Wilh. Moralt), Mandora (Pordesch), Mandoline (Kramer [sic])MT 10/06/1845, nr. 158, p. 709
BV 10/06/1845, nr. 92, p. 389
Carl Rohn musikalisch-declamatorische Abendunterhaltung 11/08/1845Philomela (Moralt), Viola d’amour (Pordesch), Mandoline (Cramer), Mandora (Feldhaus)MPZ 13/08/1845, nr. 190, p. 760
I. kgl. H. Prinzessin Amalie von Sachsen in die Appartement I. M. der Königin 28/10/1845?Philomele (Moralt), Viol d’Amour (Pordesch), Mandoline (Kramer), Mandora (Niest)BV 28/10/1845, nr. 301, p. 1211
Vorlesung verbunden mit einer musikalischen Academie, Grossen Museumssaale 5/11/1845Philomele (Moralt), Mandoline (Cramer), Viole d’amour (Portesch [sic]), Mandora (Niest)KHNT (before and for) 05/11/1845
BV 02/11/1845, nr. 175, p. 733
BV 05/11/1845, nr. 309, p. 1247
MT 29/10/1845, nr. 300, p. 1351
MT 05/11/1845, nr. 307, p. 1381
Soirée Musicale gegeben von den Mitgliedern der kgl. Hofkapelle im grossen Saale des Museums 2/03/1846Philomela (Moralt), Viola d’amour (Pordesch), Mandoline (Cramer), Mandora (Niest)KHNT (before and for) 02/03/1846
BLBt 28/02/1846, nr. 26, p. 204
BLB 18/02/1846, nr. 49, p. 201
BE 01/03/1846, nr. 26, p. 211
BE 04/03/1846, nr. 27, p. 219
Abend-Unterhaltung (for Fanny Fleckenstein, previously member of the royal court chapel) 27/04/1846Instruments not listed, but lists Moralt, Pordesch, Cramer and NiestKHNT (before and for) 27/04/1846
Privat Musikverein 14/12/1852Zither (Stahl), Mandoline (Cramer), Mandora (Niest);
Tenor (Hieber), Mandoline (Cramer), Guitarre (Niest)
NN 21/12/1852, nr. 356, p. 4247
MT 16/12/1852, nr. 349, p. 1402
Privat Musikverein, grosse Concert zur Feier des Namensfestes J.M. der Königin Marie 17/09/1853Tenor (Hieber), Mandoline (Crammer [sic]), English-horn (Feytertag), Mandora (Hieber), Tamburin und Castagnetten (Ludwig Mayer)NN 23/09/1853, nr. 266, p. 3227
Festtag silberen Hochzeit am herzoglichen Hoflager zu Possenhofen am StarnbergerseeTenor (Hieber), Mandoline (Crammer [sic]), English-horn (Feytertag), Mandora, Tamburin und Castagnetten (Ludwig & Max Mayer )BLBt 25/09/1853, nr. 231, p. 3
Abendunterhaltung Museum, 29/12/1853Gamba (Mayer), Zither (Stahl), Mandoline (Crammer [sic]), Mandora (Hieber)
2 Viola d’amour (Glosner, Stahl), Corno inglese (Feyertag), Gamba (Mayer), Mandoline (Crammer [sic]), Mandora (Hieber)
Tenor (Hieber), Mandoline (Crammer [sic]), English-horn (Feytertag), Ludwig & Max Mayer (Mandora, Tamburin und Castagnetten)
MZ supp. 2/01/1854, nr. 1, 1/01/1854
Privat Musikverein 13/02/1854Zither (Stahl), Mandoline (Cramer), Mandora (Mayer);
Tenor (Hieber), Corno inglese (Feyertag), Mandoline (Cramer), Mandora (Mayer);
2 Viola d’amour (Glosner, Stahl), Corno inglese (Feyertag), Gamba (Mayer), Mandoline (Cramer), Mandora (Hieber)
MZ 19/02/1854, nr. 43, p. 387
Bernlochner-Saale Landshut, 14/09/1856Mandoline (Cramer) (joined by Feyertag, Hieber, Mayer, Stahl, Thoms)KNB 10/09/1856, nr. 249, p. 998
KNB 12/09/1856, nr. 251, p. 1006
KNB 16/09/1856, nr. 255, p. 1023
Regensburg, 19/09/18562 Viola d’amour (Thoms, Stahl), Gamba (Mayer), Corno Inglese (Feyertag), Mandoline (Cramer), Mandora (Hieber)APZ 22/09/1856, nr. 216, p. 864
Ansbach 29/09/18562 Viola d’amour (Thoms, Stahl), Gamba (Mayer), Corno Inglese (Feyertag), Mandoline (Cramer), Mandora (Hieber)AM 28/09/1856, nr. 231, p. 923
Philharmonischer Verein im kgl. Odeon 07/12/1857?2 Viola d’amour (Thoms, Stahl), Gamba (Mayer), Corno Inglese (Feyertag), Mandoline (Cramer), Mandora (Hieber)TA 07/12/1857, nr. 347, p. 2562
Privat Musik Verein 06/04/1859 (25jährig Jubiläum)2 Viola d’amour (Thoms, Stahl), Gamba (Mayer), Corno Inglese (Feyertag), Mandoline (Cramer), Mandora (Hieber)BK 9/04/1859, nr. 98, p. 662
Appearances of Cramer on the mandolin in Bayern

Legend of the newspapers
AM: Ansbacher Morgenblatt
APZ: Ansbacher Postzeitung
BE: Bayerische Eilbode
BK: Bayerische Kurier
BLB: Bayerische Landbote
BLBt: Bayerische Landbötin
BNZ: Bayerische National-Zeitung
BV: Bayerische Volksfreund
KHNT: Königliche Hof- und National-Theater (separate posters of events)
KNB: Kurier für Niederbayern
MPZ: Münchener politische Zeitung
MT: Münchener Tagblatt
MTP: Münchener Tagpost
MZ: Neue Münchener Zeitung
NN: Neueste Nachtrichten aus dem Gebiete dem Politik
RZ: Regensberger Zeitung
TA: Münchner Tages-Anzeiger

One scholar already did extensive research (though mainly in the direction of the mandora), but the list above seems to be slightly more extensive, especially with regards to Cramer and his mandolin concerts.
See Sebastian Kirsch, Die Mandora im neuen Quartett für alte Instrumente, in Phoibos, XIX, 2021, p. 29-49.

5 Kirsch, id. p. 35.

6 Karl Emil Von Schafhäutl, IV. Über musikalische Instrumente, in Bericht der Beurtheilungs-Commission bei der allgemeinen deutschen Industrie-Ausstellung zu München 1854, vol. 6, München, 1854, p. 132.

7 Karl Emil Von Schafhäutl, id. p. 131-133.

8 See for example: Algemeine Zeitung München, supplement to 09/12/1854, nr. 343.

9 Kirsch, id., p. 30.

10 For example: Schafthäutl, id., p. 132-133.


ConcertMusicians and instrumentsReferences
ein öffentlichen Concert, 07/09/1804Violine, Mandoline (Fridzeri)KSM 02/09/1804, nr. 207
königliches Hof-Theater am Isarthor 3/1/1820englischen Mandola (Vimercati)BNZ 30/12/1819, nr. 310, p. 1124
BNZ 31/12/1820, nr. 311, p. 1128
MPZ 31/12/1819, nr. 310, p. 1438
zwei Konzerte im März in Münchenenglischen Mandola (Vimercati)JdZ 1820, vol. 1, p. 25
Fremden-Anzeige bey Karl Albert seel. Frau Wittwe, Gastgeberinn zum schwarzen Adler (not a concert, just a notice of where foreigners stayed)Hr. Vimercati, Tonkünstler von MaylandMPZ 10/04/1822, nr. 82, p. 254
grossen Saale des Museums, 20/04/1822englischen Mandoline (Vimercati) pianoforte (Schoberlechner)MPZ 17/04/1822, nr. 92, p. 504
DS 11/05/1822, nr. 57, p. 228
grossen Saale des Museums, 20/04/1822Pianoforte (Schoberlechner), engl.ischen Mandoline (Vimercati);
Guitarre (Emmerich), Mandoline (Vimercati)
AMZ 18/05/1822, nr. 40, p. 320
MPZ 20/04/1822, nr. 95, p. 516
MPZ 26/04/1822, nr. 100, p. 540
KHNT 20/04/1822
Hoftheater Isarthore 29/04/1822 (musikalische Akademie nach der vorhergehende Posse in 1 Akte “die schöne Schusterin”)beide Tonkünstler (Schoberlechner, Vimercati)MPZ 26/04/1822, nr. 100, p. 540
MPZ 9/5/1822, nr. 111, p. 596
vor dem Anfange und nach dem Ende des Schauspiels, 28/05/1828Mandoline (Vimercati)EOS 31/05/1828, nr. 87, p. 352
k. Hof- und Nationaltheater, “07 May” [likely a mistake for ‘Juni’) 07/06/1828 (during the pause between two one-act performances); some sources seem to link to 06/06/1828 (two performances?)Mandoline (Vimercati)EOS 04/06/1828, nr. 89, p. 360
Fl 04/06/1828, nr. 110, p. 446
Fl 05/06/1828, nr. 111, p. 450
Fl 06/06/1828, nr. 112, p. 454
Fl 08/06/1828, nr. 113, p. 458
BV 03/06/1828, nr. 89, p. 373
BV 05/06/1828, nr. 90, p. 378
BV 06/06/1828, nr. 91, p. 382
BV 10/06/1828, nr. 93, p. 389
06/06/1828, nr. 155, p. 627
EOS 13/06/1828, nr. 94, p. 380
Odeon-Saale, 27/10/1834lombardischen Mandoline (Vimercati)BNZ 26/10/1834, nr. 291, p. 1177
MT 25/10/1834, nr. 295, p. 1182
KHNT (for and before) 27/10/1834
Königliches Hof- und Nationaltheater, 4/11/1834Mandoline (Vimercati) (mandolin aria during Don Giovanni)KHNT (for and before) 4/11/1834
Königliches Hof- und Nationaltheater, 19/11/1834Mandoline (Vimercait) (between two pantomime acts)KHNT (for and before) 19/11/1834
Stadttheater 21/10/1835Pianoforte (Schoberlechner), Mandoline (Vimercati)AZB 20/10/1835, nr. 293, p. 1176
AZB 23/10/1835, nr. 296, p. 1188
Stadttheater?, 27/10/1835Mandoline (Vimercati)AZB 26/10/1835, nr. 299, p. 1200
Saale zum goldnen Adler, 30/10/1835Lombardischen Mandoline (Vimercati)AZB 27/10/1835, nr. 300, p. 1204
Stadttheater 21/10/1835Lombardischen Mandoline (Vimercati)AZB 20/10/1835, nr. 293, p. 1176
AZB 23/10/1835 nr. 296, p. 1188
AZB 26/10/1835, nr. 299, p. 1200
Stadtheater 30/10/1835Lombardischen Mandoline (Vimercati)AZB 27/10/1835, nr. 300, p. 1204
Stadtheater 01/11/1835Lombardischen Mandoline (Vimercati)AZB 01/11/1835, nr. 305, p. 1224
OdeonSaale, 10/06/1837Mandoline (Bongiorny?)BL 04/06/1837, nr. 155, p. 673
BL 05/06/1837, nr. 156, p. 680
PraterSaale, 18/06/1839Mandoline (Antonio Reggi) Tenor (Paolo Terecini), Guitarre (Giovanni Poevintesta)NTfMB 18/06/1839, nr. 166, p. 681
Fremdenanzeige im goldenen Hirsch (not a concert, just a notice of where foreigners stayed)Hr. de VimercatiBPA 18/08/1841, nr. 64, p. 647
Mandolin related appearances in München 1800-1840

Legend of the newspapers
AMZ: Allgemeine Musikalische Zeitung
AZB: Allgemeine Zeitung von und für Bayern
BL: Bayerische Landbote
BNZ: Bayerische National-Zeitung
BPA: königlich Bayerischer Polizen-Anzeiger
BV: Bayerische Volksfreund
DS: Der Sammler
EOS: EOS, Münchener Blätter für Poesie, Literatur und Kunst
Fl: Flora
JdZ: Jahrbuch der Zeitgeschichte
KHNT: Königliche Hof- und National-Theater (separate posters of events)
KSM: Kurpfalzbaierische Staatszeitung von München
MPZ: Münchener politische Zeitung
MT: Münchener Tagsblatt
TfM: Tagsblatt für München
NTfMB: Neues Tagblaat für München und Bayern

12 Verzeichniss von Musikalien welche in der Musik und Instrumenten-Handlung bey Falter und Sohn in München In der Residenz-Schwabinger-Strasse Nro. 33. zu haben sind, p. 42-43, München, 1822.

13 Some further manuscripts that came to light in regards to the Krähmer pieces, from the same collection and in the same hand as the mandolin part of Rêve by Moralt, list Vimercati as their composer. There is even a small piece of variations by Vimercati in the collection, based on the Don Giovanni mandolin aria, which we know he played in München in 1834. This leads to the conclusion that someone in München must have had access to certain music by Vimercati, potentially originals. (NB: of course I will write additional blog posts including more details, when the study of these manuscripts is finished.)